Single Wire Currents – Part 1

Part 1 of single wire currents investigates the voltages and currents generated in the secondary coil, and connected load circuit, when the primary is driven from a suitable generator. In this part the generator used is a high voltage vacuum tube oscillator which derives the feedback for oscillation directly from the dominant flat coil resonant frequency.

The design, construction, and measurement of this generator, and its matching and tuning circuit, will be reported in subsequent posts. For clarity here the following different types of generator have been built and tested in a wide range of different experiments:

1. Vacuum tube generator driven either by an external high power oscillator, or directly as a self-tuned oscillator using feedback from the secondary coil. Can be driven in CW (carrier or continuous wave), burst, or modulated modes.

2. Spark gap generator, (static or rotary), driving directly a primary matching and tuning circuit, (tuning circuit as shown in Fig. 1.4 below).

3. Spark gaps driving a modern replica of an H.G. Fischer diathermy generator.

4. An original 1920’s H.G. Fischer diathermy generator.

Experiments in single wire currents investigate the interesting and unusual properties that result from high voltage and often high frequency waves emitted from a suitable source or generator and guided by a single wire to a load. The single wire nature means that power is passed from the generator to the load, and where the load is able to utilise this power to do work, through only a single wire. In a standard electric circuit a source of electric power such as a battery or an oscillator would be connected from both the +ve and -ve terminals for a current (dc or ac) to move around the circuit, and doing work in the circuit dependent on the characteristics and nature of the circuit. In this case if one of the terminals were removed, the circuit would be considered open-circuit, no current would flow, and no power could be utilised to do work within the circuit. In the single wire case the power conveyed through the electric and magnetic fields of induction easily do measurable work e.g. lighting an incandescent bulb, whilst the current in the circuit appears to be guided only by a single wire, that is, there is no obvious return wire for the current to pass back to the generator and create the required “circuit” for the classical conduction of electric current.

In part 1 of this experiment a vacuum tube generator is used to apply an rf sinusoidal (ac) current to the primary of the flat coil in CW mode. By extension of the magnetic field of induction to the secondary coil a magnified electric field of induction (emf) is induced across the secondary of the coil. When the secondary coil is further connected to a load via a wire at the bottom-end, or outer-end, an oscillating current (resulting from a reciprocal inter-action between the electric and magnetic fields of induction) is guided by the conductor of the wire to the load. In conjunction a pick-up coil is used behind the secondary to induce a small part of the magnified wave and feed this back to the vacuum tube oscillator. This positive feedback signal drives the oscillator at the dominant (tuned) frequency of the flat coil, in this case the lower resonant frequency FL at ~ 1850kc/s where CP ~ 900pF. In this way the circuit can be measured at a single frequency which can be tuned and adjusted using the primary capacitance CP.

Figures 1. show the generator connected flat coil 1S-3P to be used in the single wire current experiments, and including the primary tuning circuit with primary capacitance CP, in this case a 4kV vacuum capacitor:

Figures 2. show the single wire current experimental apparatus, including measurement equipment and probes:

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Fig 2.1. Shows the overall experimental apparatus, measurement probes, and equipment. The vacuum tube generator feeds the connections to the tuning unit with the primary capacitance. A high voltage differential probe Pintech DP-50 is connected across the primary capacitance to show the electric potential VP applied across its terminals. A current probe Tektronix A6303 is connected around the wire between the primary capacitor and the plates of the vacuum tubes to show the electric current IP moving through the primary circuit. Inserted between the high voltage tank capacitor and the input to the primary is a Weston model 425 rf ammeter (either 1A or 5A full scale deflection (fsd) dependent on generator output, and with internal thermocouple), to additionally monitor the primary rf currents IPRF.

In the secondary circuit the top-end of the flat coil is terminated with a 240V 5W (UK standard) neon bulb to act as an indicator of the magnitude of induced electric potential or tension, and to contain the top-end with a defined impedance. This containment assists in stabilising the resonant cavity formed by the secondary coil, and without significantly loading the coil and effecting the upper and lower resonant frequencies, or the Q-factor. The bottom-end of the secondary coil is connected by short wire to another Weston model 425 rf ammeter (250mA fsd) combined with a parallel 5Ω shunt to make 500mA fsd and to monitor the secondary rf currents ISRF.

The bottom-end of the coil is also connected to a high-voltage probe Pintech HVP40 40kV 1000:1 passive probe to monitor the secondary potential VS at the lower terminal. The output of the secondary ammeter is connected to the load, which in this case is 4 x 240V 25W (UK standard) pygmy bulbs with vertically laced filaments. The bulbs can be connected in a variety of arrangements, but were here used in a two parallel twin series connected arrangement so that all 4 bulbs will light as the load. The output of the load was connected to an 80cm flying lead. Secondary current IS was monitored in various places using a second Tektronix A6303 current probe.

The outputs of probes VP and IP from the primary, and VS and IS from the secondary, were passed to the inputs a four input oscilloscope HP54542C for measurement and comparison. In addition the signal VP was fed to a Tektronix DC5009 Universal Counter to confirm the oscillation frequency of the primary circuit. This frequency of oscillation was also monitored via a Tektronix 7L5 spectrum analyser fed by a small whip antenna at the input. Throughout the experiment the Tektronix current probes 2 x A6303 connected to AM503B current probe amplifiers were set on 1A AC /division. The total input power to generator PIN, (input to the high voltage transformers only), was monitored using a Yokogawa WT200 digital power meter.

Fig 2.2. Shows that at an input power of PIN = 319W @ 1851kc/s, IPRF ~ 700mA, ISRF ~ 240mA (2 x 120), and a 80cm fly lead connected to the output of the load bulbs, that all the bulbs are lit with the first two bulbs being lit brightly whilst the second two bulbs are only dimly lit. The measured waveforms will be considered in more detail in Figures 3.

Fig 2.3. Shows that under the same electrical conditions with the fly lead removed from the second load bulbs the intensity of the bulbs is greatly reduced. The first set of load bulbs are now dimly lit, whereas the second set of load bulbs are not visibly illuminated. ISRF has also reduced considerably to ~ 100mA (2 x 50mA), whilst IPRF  increased slightly to ~ 770mA, at a PIN = 318W @ 1860kc/s. Here the frequency of oscillation has increased slightly due to the reduction in wire length with the fly lead removed, although vacuum tube generator has compensated automatically to shift resonance to the new resonant frequency via the secondary pick-up coil. The most important feature here is that in single wire current experiments loads will not power when no fly lead or terminating lead is connected to their output. In the case of a bulb it will not light when it is the last device connected to the single wire.

Fig 2.4. Shows the effect of introducing a conductive material close to the load in this case an aluminium leaf suspended by masking tape from an insulated support. Within a certain distance the aluminium leaf is attracted to the bulb outer glass surface and can remain held in this place until the generator is turned off. It appears a force is applied to the aluminium leaf that will move and/or retain the leaf in a distance offset from the vertical. This unusual result has been investigated in a variety of different ways and will be introduced here, to be further investigated and described in subsequent parts.

In the case of the CW vacuum tube generator (VTG-CW) the waveform induced in the secondary circuit is a steady and constant oscillation at a single frequency. This is a very linear and determinate condition and has been found to have the least intensity on the phenomena of attraction of conductive materials. At input powers typically 250W upwards in the experimental apparatus shown the aluminium leaf is very slightly attracted to the bulb glass. If placed only 1mm from the surface then the leaf will be pulled directly from vertical to a point on the glass bulb surface and held there. For distances x between the leaf and the bulb in the range 1mm < x < 15mm, and for the VTG in CW mode, the leaf can be held in place when initially placed on the bulb surface. Above ~15mm the aluminium leaf will not be retained on the bulb surface but will swing back to the vertical position.

The magnitude of the force applied to the aluminium leaf increases with the input power PIN to the generator and hence ISRF in the secondary wire. The overall effect is similar to observing a magnetic metal attracted to a magnet at close range, or the effect of electrostatic attraction in the case of opposite charged metal plates spaced slightly apart. In this case however it appears that the effect is based on the electric field of induction being dominant in the scenario rather than magnetic field of induction. When a permanent magnet is introduced into the experiment it has no influence on the attraction of the aluminium leaf either in being attracted towards the bulb, away from it, or being held on the bulb surface.

The intensity of the attraction and hence the magnitude of the applied force on the leaf has been found to increase significantly with burst, impulse, and modulated waveforms. With a burst or impulse waveform from the generator it is easily seen that at PIN > 400W the leaf can be instantly attracted to the bulb and move from the vertical over distances as much as 20mm, and then held there strongly on the surface of the glass.  in this case even with the generator turned off the leaf can be retained for up to 60 seconds on the surface of the bulb before being released and swinging back to the horizontal.

Other types of leaf material have also been tested, and those found to readily be attracted and retained to the bulb glass have a conductive element to them, including metals like aluminium and copper, organic materials such as living tissue, plant matter (e.g. leaves), and paper, cardboard, and woods with a certain content of moisture in them. In the case of organic living tissue the presence of my hand in the vicinity of the light bulb, but not touching, greatly increases the effect even in CW mode. For man-made synthetic materials such as plastic and other insulating mediums there is normally no discernible attraction towards the bulb. At very high voltages and high input powers PIN > 1000W a plastic leaf was found to attracted to the bulb surface over a tiny distance < 0.5mm but could not be retained on the surface of the bulb even when placed directly on the surface.

With the aluminium leaf the voltage on the leaf was measured during the process of attraction and was found to rise to a high dc potential usually in the order of several hundred volts in the experiment thus described. This indicates a form of “charging” like the plate of a capacitor when exposed to a dc potential higher or lower than the surrounding environment. In this case the electric field of induction appears to have created a region of potential difference and tension between the material of the leaf, where the leaf has become “charged” to an opposite polarity than that present on the glass surface of the bulb. It is conjectured here that an electric wavefront (a positive dc level or impulse rather than a varying sinusoid) is emitted from the exposed wire of the bulb filament (itself a tiny extra coil and leading to an imbalance between the magnetic and electric fields of induction). These continuous wavefronts result in charge accumulation on the surface of the conductive material which establishes an electric field between the bulb filament and the conductive material. The electric field results in a force exerted on the aluminium leaf which is pulled towards the glass surface. As the conductors of the filament and the leaf are prevented to come into contact by the glass bulb the electric field is not collapsed by shorting the two together, and the leaf can be retained firmly on the glass surface as it remains “charged” by the presented wavefronts.

It is suggested that the attraction is not likely to be magnetic in nature, and as a result of eddy currents in the conductive material induced by the presence of a time varying magnetic field, as the phenomena cannot be influenced by other magnetic fields in very close vicinity, such as permanent magnets and electromagnets. It would be expected that the magnetic field generated by eddy currents in the leaf would be disturbed by the introduction of a strong permanent magnet, however no such disturbances have been observed or measured.

To eliminate effects due to convection and movement of air due to heating of the glass bulb a control experiment connected the same bulb type, a 240V 25W pygmy bulb, to a normal domestic ac outlet so that it would light to normal intensity and heating. The aluminium leaf was then placed in very close proximity to the bulb surface ~ 0.5mm with no discernible movement towards the bulb over any length of time the control experiment was conducted.

Fig 2.5. Shows in close-up detail the attraction of an aluminium leaf to the surface of the load bulb and being retained on the surface until the generator is turned off. In this case with the VTG in CW mode the attraction is not strong enough to pull the leaf from the vertical over a distance of 15mm to the bulb surface. The applied force is however strong enough to retain the leaf on the surface of the bulb at a distance of 15mm from the vertical, and once placed on the surface of the bulb.

Fig 2.6. Shows the experimental apparatus from the reverse side with the generator attached to the tuning unit, the rf ammeters in the primary and secondary, and the generator tank capacitor meter in the far bottom right showing a tank voltage of ~ 800V dc.

Fig 2.7. Shows the vacuum tube generator, primary measurement probes in the background, and the test equipment setup with PIN = 479W, the primary and secondary voltages and currents measured on the oscilloscope, and the measured oscillation frequency of the primary FP = 1.850Mc/s on the frequency counter.

Fig 2.8. Shows the spectral response of the emitted electric field in vicinity of the experimental setup and as measured by the Tektronix 7L5 spectrum analyser connected to a small whip antenna as shown in the bottom right of the picture. The spectral response shows a significant peak at ~1850kHz, and small possibly “artifact” peak at ~1950kHz.

Fig 2.9. Shows particularly the change in oscillation frequency measured in the primary circuit when the fly lead was removed from the output of the bulb load. The oscillation frequency of the experiment changes from ~1850kc/s to ~1860kc/s.

Figures 3. show the voltage and current waveforms for the primary and secondary and their phase relationship:

Fig 3.1. Shows the primary and secondary voltage and current measurements VP (trace 1) and IP (trace 2), and VS (trace 3) and IS (trace 4) respectively. VP is a sinusoidal oscillating voltage VPK-PK ~ 2kV. IP is more in the form of a pulsed current where the trace is calibrated 1V per amp and showing IPK-PK of ~ 2A. The phase of the current IP is leading VP by ~90° indicating that the generator appears to be driving a reactive load that is predominantly capacitive in a class-C amplifier arrangement. This is to be expected as the 180° phase change of the primary has been shown to exist at a much higher frequency than the impedance maximum for the primary would indicate. Operated in this way the primary and secondary are not at resonance simultaneously, the primary circuit is oscillating with a driven ac, whilst the secondary is acting as a free resonator at its tuned resonant frequency which determines the driven frequency in the primary.

As the voltage VP rises across the primary the current IP is maximum and falls rapidly as the primary capacitor Cis charged by the tank capacitor, on which that energy is released through the inductance of the primary coil reversing the current flow and discharging CP. This yields current pulses of sufficient magnitude for the magnetic field of induction to dominate and extend to the secondary coil. The secondary coil is not tightly coupled to the primary and so can reasonably resonate freely as the generator oscillates at a frequency determined by feedback from the secondary to the generator pick-up coil.

Using the VTG in cw mode it is important to note that the secondary is constantly being excited by the primary in a linear continuous fashion. There is no charge and discharge phase in the secondary as would occur in a burst or impulse driven primary. In this case the VTG is driving the flat coil in a very linear condition where the system operates at one set frequency, and the dominant majority of energy is conveyed at the fundamental resonant frequency, with very little contribution from harmonics. In this case we would expect phenomena that arise from the imbalance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction to be minimal, which is so far confirmed by measurement of single wire phenomena including deflection of conductive materials, and dc charging of capacitive loads.

The freely resonating secondary shows VP and Iwhich are in phase in traces 3 and 4, which is to be expected for a freely resonating coil driven with a very linear continuous wave. VS at the bottom-end or outer-end of the secondary coil is ~1kVPK-PK, and the current IP measured by the current probe prior to the load (as shown in Fig. 2.2) is ~ 2APK-PK (1V per amp calibrated on the current probe amplifier).

Fig 3.2. Shows the change in waveforms when the fly lead is removed from the end of the load, and the secondary current probe is connected through the fly lead. The frequency of oscillation has increased due to the reduced wire length in the experiment to ~1860kc/s (as measured by the frequency counter and spectrum analyser, rather than the marker frequency of the oscilloscope). The primary waveforms Vand IP remain largely the same in amplitude, phase, and form. The secondary voltage VS has increased as the effective load is reduced in the secondary, and IS has gone to zero as the fly lead, from which the current is being measured, has been disconnected from the output of the load. In this case the final load bulbs were not lighted, and the first load bulbs were lit only dimly with a significant reduction in ISRF.

Fig 3.3. Confirms the electric field detected in the vicinity of the experiment throughout the measurement period, where the pick-up whip antenna is located ~ 3m from the load bulbs.

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Figures 4. show the Z11 input impedance characteristics of the experimental apparatus:

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Fig 4.1. Shows the small signal input impedance Z11 as seen by the generator of the complete experimental apparatus with all measurement probes connected, and the fly lead connected at the output of the bulb load. The impedance characteristics show that the experiment tuning is operating very close to the balanced point between the lower and upper resonant frequency, FL and FU, of the flat coil. This is the point where there is expected to be best balance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction between the primary and the secondary coils, and in this case the best experimental starting point when investigating the displacement and transference of electric power through non-linear processes. FL measured when running the single wire current experiments was ~1850kc/s, and from the impedance characteristics 1889kc/s a variation of ~2%, and most likely due to differences between the small-signal and large-signal operation points of the flat coil, tuning components, and generator mode of operation (cw class-C).

Fig 4.2. Shows the result of removing the fly lead the length of wire in the secondary section of the experiment has been reduced, and hence the frequency increased from ~1850kc/s to ~1860kc/s. This is also indicated by the impedance characteristics where the 180° phase change frequency FØ180 has shifted from 2345kc/s in Fig. 4.1 up to 2388kc/s. This has also created a greater imbalance between  FL and FU.

Fig 4.3. Shows the result of removing the experiment from the bottom-end or outer-end of the secondary coil. All frequencies are shifted up due to the change again in wire length, and also the change of impedance at the bottom-end from lower to higher, and away from the λ/4 mode.

Fig 4.4. With the primary capacitance CP removed the impedance characteristics of the experiment revert to the loaded properties of the secondary coil with a single resonant frequency, and there is no established balance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction between the primary and the secondary.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far:

1. Single wire currents have been observed and measured using a flat coil driven by a vacuum tube generator in cw mode. The current measured in the single wire, and its properties thus far observed, would appear to suggest that rf energy from the wire is escaping along its length to the surrounding environment which acts as an energy sink, ground, or -ve terminal, which then effectively completes the circuit. High energy rf  as a result of the magnified voltage produced by the secondary coil, is easily radiated from all parts of the conductor that forms the wire through to the end of the fly lead. With this being the case, and with the voltage and current being in phase in the secondary, real power is generated to drive the load bulbs which emit both light and heat.  With the fly lead removed the final load bulbs do not light as there is insufficient length of conductor to act as a suitable radiator or sink “to ground”. It is expected that any load connected to the end of the single wire will not be driven as there is insufficient energy sink on the output of the load to enable a current to be developed through the load. With this being the case the energy sink is distributed along the length of the wire so that the current along the wire would not be a constant value, as might be expected normally for the current flowing through a circuit. In part 2 of single wire currents it will be necessary to measure the magnitude and phase of the current along the wire length as a function of distributed load which would then allow a more accurate picture, and hence interpretation, of single wire current action in a circuit.

2. Standing waves were not observed or measured along the length of the single wire in this experiment, but rather the magnitude of the oscillating voltage appears to remain relatively constant along the length of wire, whilst the current reduces with load and distance along the wire. This will be further investigated in part 2 where a more accurate voltage and current distribution will be measured with wire length and load distribution.

3. A force applied to a conductive medium in close proximity to a load on the wire, in this case a lighted incandescent bulb filament, has been observed and investigated at first stage. The phenomena, at this stage, appears to result from a form of electric attraction between the filament of the bulb the emitter, and the conductive medium. The effect does not appear to be influenced by other close proximity magnetic fields such as permanent magnets, and electromagnets, which also suggests that the phenomena does not result from eddy currents generated in the conductive medium. A range of different materials have been tested, and all that show a significant attraction towards the load bulb, have a conductive element or property. The effect is also greatly amplified in the presence of a significant energy sink such as the hand of a person. In cw mode no discernible force could be registered on the surface of the hand when placed in close proximity to a load bulb. This has been subsequently demonstrated when driving the generator in burst or impulse mode and will be presented in detail in subsequent parts.

4. The impedance characteristics indicate that the complete experiment was operated in a well-balanced mode of the flat coil, which suggests a good starting point for further, and more detailed investigation, of the displacement and transference of electric power through non-linear events.

Click here to continue to the flat coil single wire currents experiment part 2.

 

Single Wire Currents – Part 2

In part 2 of single wire currents the magnitude and phase of the current along the wire length, as a function of distributed load, is investigated in order to develop a more accurate understanding and formulation as to the mechanism and properties defining these currents.

Results from this part lead to further experiments where single wire currents are investigated using generators in burst and impulse modes, and then even further to preliminary experiments in the transference of electric power.

This and subsequent parts and are currently being written-up and will be released shortly.

 

ESTC 2019 – Tesla’s Colorado Springs Experiment

ESTC 2019, the Energy, Science, and Technology Conference[1], included a presentation and working demonstration by Eric Dollard on Tesla’s Colorado Springs experiment[2] (TCS), which is available through A & P Electronic Media[3,4]. Due to unforseen circumstances relating to the demonstration co-worker, the generator for this experiment was unavailable after the demonstration for additional experimentation, investigation, and follow-up demonstrations.

In agreement with Eric I suggested that the spark gap generator from the Vril Science Multiwave Oscillator Product[5], (MWO), could be adapted, tuned, and applied to the Colorado Springs experiment, and in order to facilitate ongoing investigation and experimentation throughout the conference period. What follows in this post is the story of how this successful endeavour unfolded in the form of videos, pictures, measurements, and of course the final results.

The first video below shows highlights from the endeavour, video footage was recorded and supplied by Paul Fraser, and reproduced here with permission from A & P Electronic Media.

The second video below shows highlights from the impedance measurements part of the endeavour, video footage again by Paul Fraser, and by Raui Searle.

Figures 1 below show a range of pictures of the original transmitter and receiver setup from Eric Dollard’s TCS demonstration, including the generator used to power the experiment, and key results from the original demonstration. The red “transmitter” coil (RTC) was subsequently modified after the demonstration, (secondary coil re-wound, and with a single copper strap primary), in order to work well with the MWO spark gap generator. The green “receiver” coil (GRC) was left un-modified for the purpose of the endeavour, although it could be fine tuned using the extra coil telescopic extension. Ultimately for on-going experiments using the MWO generator, the GRC would be re-wound and adapted to more closely match the RTC.

The original TCS demonstration was powered by a 1000W linear amplifier generator being driven at ~ 800W output to light a 500W incandescent bulb at the receiver primary, and where the electric power is transferred between the RTC and GRC by a single wire. The TCS demonstration with both coils fully configured and connected to the generator was tuned to a drive frequency of 848.4 kc/s, as can be seen in fig. 1.9 as the selected frequency of the transceiver.

The transceiver is an ICOM-7300 which must have been modified to allow transmit on all frequencies, a modification that allows a radio amateur transceiver to generate a transmit signal outside of the designated amateur bands. This kind of modification turns a transceiver into a powerful bench top signal generator, with full modulation capabilities, and matched output powers from the transceiver alone of up to 100W in the MF and HF bands (300kc/s – 30Mc/s). 848 kc/s is in the MW (MF) radio broadcast band, and amplitude modulation is well suited here for the transmission of voice and music signals, as was also demonstrated in the original experiment.

The ICOM transceiver is connected via a matching unit to the Denton linear amplifier. This specific brand and model of linear amplifier has no matching unit at its input, which is why external matching is required from the ICOM 50Ω output to the lower impedance Denton input. The passive matching unit is shown in fig. 1.10, and also in the schematic of fig. 2.1.

The Denton Clipperton-L is a linear amplifier using 4 x 572B vacuum tubes with a band selected matching unit at its output, and a total output peak voltage of ~ 500V. The lowest band provided internally for matching at the output of the amplifier is the HF 160m band at ~ 1.8Mc/s. The much lower MW signal at 848kc/s would need additional matching and balancing between the amplifier output and the input to the primary of the RTC, (the output of the amplifier is an unbalanced feed e.g. coaxial, whereas the connecting transmission line and the primary are better fed with a balanced feed). The amplifier passive matching unit is shown in figures 1.6 – 1.8, and is also shown in the schematic of fig. 2.1.

The various different experiments conducted in the original demonstration included the following:

Fig 1.13. Shows Eric Dollard finding the null electric field region between the RTC and GRC, and using a 6′ domestic fluorescent tube light.

Fig 1.14. Shows Eric Dollard testing the field surrounding the RTC extra coil extension top load, using a helium-neon gas filled tube.

Fig 1.15. Shows single wire transmission of electric power, and fully lighting a 500W incandescent light bulb at the primary of the GRC.

Figures 2 below show the schematics for both the linear amplifier generator and coil arrangement for Eric Dollard’s original TCS demonstration, and a second schematic for the TCS experiment retune using the MWO spark gap generator. The high-resolution versions can be viewed by clicking on the following links TCS Demonstration, and TCS Retune.

Figures 3 below show the small signal impedance measurements for Z11 for the TCS coils, and also the tuning measurements for the coils and spark gap generator together, which were taken throughout the endeavour and used to ensure a well tuned match between the generator and the TCS experiment.

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below, and for a more detailed explanation of the mathematical symbols used in the analysis of the results click here. For further detail in the analysis and consideration of Z11 typical for a Tesla coil based system click here.

Fig 3.1. Shows the impedance measurements for the RTC with the secondary grounded, the extra coil disconnected, and where the primary tank capacitance has been arranged to be series CP = 40pf, which puts the primary resonant frequency FP at a much higher frequency and far away from the secondary. This would be the proper drive condition for the original linear amplifier generator (LAG) where FP is not arranged to be equal to FS. For the spark gap generator (SGG) it is necessary to match FP as closely as possible to the combined resonant frequency of the secondary and the extra coil together.  The fundamental parallel resonant frequency of the secondary Fs at M1 = 1326kc/s, and as is to be expected with this form of air-cored coil, the FØ180 or series resonant point at which a 180° phase change occurs, is at a higher frequency at 1571kc/s at M2. At M3 = 2398kc/s a tiny resonance is being coupled from the disconnected extra coil which, being mounted in the centre on axis with the secondary, is close enough to have a non-zero coupling coefficient, and hence show some slight resonation reflected into the measurement.

Fig 3.2. Here the extra coil has been reconnected and two resonant features can be noted, the lower from the secondary, and the upper from the extra coil. The effect of the coupled resonance between the two coils with a non-zero coupling coefficient is to push the secondary resonance down in frequency to where the FS at M1 is now at 826kc/s which is very close to the original drive frequency of the linear amplifier generator at 848kc/s. The fundamental resonant frequency of the extra coil, (now in λ/4 mode with one end at a lower impedance connected to the secondary, and the other connected to the high impedance of the extendable aerial), at M3 is now 1725kc/s

Fig 3.3. Here both the RTC and GRC have been connected together to complete the overall system, and where the bottom end of both secondaries are connected together by a single wire transmission line. Both the RTC and GRC have their extra coil adjustable extensions fully extended. It can be seen that both the secondary and extra coil resonant frequencies have been split in two, to reveal four resonant frequencies from the four main coils, 2 in the RTC, and 2 in the GRC. The markers at M1 at 833kc/s and M3 are due to the secondary resonance in the RTC and GRC respectively, and the markers at M5 at 1752kc/s and M7 at 1801kc/s are due to the extra coils. It can be noted that the impedance of the RTC and GRC are not well-balanced the resonance is stronger on the RTC side where |Z| at M1 ~ 741Ω, and M3 ~ 342Ω. During running operation with either the LAG or SGG this would result in more energy stored in the RTC coil, the standing wave null on the single wire transmission line would be pushed away from the RTC and towards the GRC, and less power would be available at the output of the primary in the GRC.

Fig 3.4. Here the lengths of the extra coil extensions have been adjusted to balance |Z| at M1 and M3 at ~500Ω. The RTC extended length was 57cm, and the GRC extended length was 84cm, measured from the copper to aerial join, and to the base of the ball top load. With very fine adjustment, which is very difficult to accomplish, it may be possible to also balance |Z| for the extra coils at M5 and M7. This would result in the ideal balanced and equilibrium state, where the electric and magnetic fields of induction are balanced across the entire system, energy storage is equal, the null point is equidistant between the RTC and the GRC, and maximum power can be transferred between the two coils. In practice, when |Z| for the fundamental secondary resonance is equal, as shown, the overall system can be considered to be well-balanced, and will perform close to its maximum performance. Very slight adjustments to the drive frequency from the generator can then be used to nudge the system into the best overall balance and match. FS at M1 is now 858kc/s which is now close to the original drive frequency of the LAG at 848kc/s.

Fig 3.5. Shows the impedance characteristics of the RTC from the perspective of the SGG. The vector network analyser (VNA) is connected to the outputs of the spark gaps in the generator, so the characteristics include the tank capacitance of 6.1nF and the primary coil, which in this case is 2 turns of 1/4″ copper pipe. It can be seen that the resonant frequency of the primary FP is somewhat below FS as M1 at 549kc/s, and is moving away from M2 and M3. FS has also reduced to 801kc/s at M2 which also shows that the loading in the primary is too much. The inductance of the primary coil, or the tank capacitance, needs to be reduced in order to establish a better match between the generator and the RTC.

Fig 3.6. Here the number of turns of the primary has been reduced to one, which reduces the inductance in the primary resonant circuit with the generator. M1 is now closer to M2 and M3 and the FS has now increased to 819kc/s. The tuning between the generator and the RTC has now swung slightly the other way and the primary is pushing upwards on the secondary characteristics. This state is however a better state of tune than that shown in figure 3.5. It can also be seen that FE for the extra coil is cleaner and less impacted by the primary resonance. Additional fine tuning of the system would ultimately be accomplished by moving one side of the primary connection a certain distance around the circumference of the primary loop, (to form a fractional number of turns in the primary e.g. 1.4), and gain balanced and equidistant spacing for markers M1 and Mfrom M2.

Fig 3.7. Here the single turn copper pipe primary has been replaced with a single turn copper strap, which was deemed to present a lower impedance to the generator, and improve the magnitude of the oscillating currents in the primary. In order to further improve the tuning two 22nF 3kV capacitors in parallel (44nF) were added to one of the outputs of the SGG as shown in the schematic of figure 2.2. This reduced the tank capacitance slightly from 6.1nF to 5.4nF. The inductance of the strap was measured to be 2.5uH which combined with the tank capacitance of 5.4nF provides a theoretical lumped element resonant frequency of 1370kc/s. referring back to figure 3.1 it can be seen that FS, the resonant frequency of the secondary, without the extra coil at M1 is 1326kc/s. So the primary circuit tuned and driven at this point has a very close match to the secondary coil, which ensures that maximum energy can be coupled from the primary to the secondary, and then combined with the extra coil, maximum power can be transferred from the generator to the RTC, and ultimately to the GRC when further connected. For the purposes of this endeavour this state of retune was considered adequate for further demonstration and exploration of the Colorado Springs experiment.

The experimental phenomena observed during the operation of the TCS experiment, retuned to work with the MWO generator, can be seen in the first video on this page.

Summary of the endeavour:

The overall endeavour facilitated the demonstration and exploration of tuning and operating the MWO spark gap generator to work with the Colorado Springs demonstration. In the process the RTC primary and secondary needed to be modified for optimum running with the SGG. Throughout the endeavour a wide range of measurements were demonstrated including:

1. Z11 impedance measurements for the series fed secondary and extra coil, for the RTC.

2. Z11 impedance measurements for the primary combined with the secondary, and the exta coil, for the RTC.

3. Combined Z11 impedance measurements for both the RTC and GRC, where the bottom ends of both secondaries were connected together to form a single wire transmission line.

4. Fine tuning of the system by adjusting the wire length of the extra coil extensions, in order to balance |Z11| in the fundamental and second harmonics.

5. Z11 impedance measurements using a computer connected vector network analyser.

The endeavour also facilitated the demonstration and exploration of the following interesting Tesla related phenomena:

6. Single wire electric power transmission.

7. Longitudinal transmission of electric power.

8. Emission of radiant energy pulses from an incandescent bulb.

9. Radiant energy pulses attracting metal to the bulb.

10. Amplification of radiant energy by interaction with a human hand.

11. Transference of electric power between a TMT “transmitter” and “receiver”.


1. ESTC 2019, Energy, Science, and Technology Conference, A & P Electronic Media , 2019, ESTC

2. Dollard E., Preview of Theory, Calculation & Operation of Colorado Springs Tesla Transformer, 2019, EricPDollard

3. A & P Electronic Media, 2019, EMediaPress

4. A & P Electronic Media, AMInnovations by Adrian Marsh, 2019,  EMediaPress

5. Vril Science, Lahkovsky Multiwave Oscillator, 2019, Vril

 

Transference of Electric Power – Part 1

In this first part we will look at both video experiments and measurements to investigate and demonstrate the transference of electric power via the transmission medium of a single wire, and combined with and without multiple loads. The experiments are undertaken using the flat coils designed, measured, and tested in detail here. Part 1 of this topic is intended to experimentally introduce the transference of electric power, and the various properties, phenomena, and effects that can be measured within such an electrical system when excited using the vacuum tube generator as a feedback oscillator, details here.

A more detailed introduction to the principles of transference of electric power can be found here. The experimental work in this part is intended to investigate and demonstrate aspects of the following:

1. Tuning measurements using a vector network analyser to measure Z11, the small signal ac input impedance for the experimental system, from the perspective of the generator.

2. Tuning the transmitter and receiver to different points to demonstrate different transference phenomena.

3. Single wire transmission and the longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) mode.

4. Tuning to power a load within the single wire transmission line.

5. Tuning to power a load at the output of the receiver.

6. Tuning to establish the LMD mode of transmission between the transmitter and the receiver.

7. Tuning to establish the null point of the LMD mode within the single wire load.

8. Tesla’s wireless transmission of electric power in the near field, using a pair of tuned Tesla magnifying transformers (TMT).

9. Transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver in the near field.

Figures 1 below show an overview of the experimental arrangement which consists of two flat coils used as transmitter and receiver and joined via the base of the secondary coils by a single wire transmission line with an inline 100W four incandescent lamp load, (4 x 25W 240V pygmy lamps). The transmitter primary is connected to the 811A vacuum tube generator via a matching unit which in this case consists of only a 1200pF vacuum variable capacitor in parallel with the 2 turn copper strap primary. The receiver primary is tuned by another parallel connected 1000pF vacuum variable capacitor which in turn is connected to another 100W four incandescent lamp load. The outer end terminal of the receiver primary is connected directly to RF ground via a low inductance ground strap. The secondary coils of the transmitter and receiver are positioned facing each other on axis 1.5m apart, and are counter-wound to each other in order to produce a balanced and reciprocal cavity arrangement.

The 811A vacuum tube generator is used in this experiment as a tuned plate class-C Armstrong oscillator which derives automatic feedback from a pick-up coil placed close to the secondary coil of the transmitter, and can be clearly seen on the back of the transmitter in figures 1.4-1.6. The advantage of using a self-tuned oscillator as the generator for this experiment is that complete tuning of the system can be easily accomplished simply by adjusting CPT, the primary capacitance of the transmitter, (and for fine tuning CPR the primary capacitance of the receiver). As CPT is adjusted over its range the generator tracks the tuning changes in the overall system allowing very precise and optimum frequency tracking through the various resonant bands of the system.

The dis-advantage of self-tuning the generator in this way, is in the regions where there is very little coupling between the primary and secondary of the transmitter coil, (far from the resonant regions), there is insufficient feedback to the vacuum tubes and oscillation can be unstable or non-existent. To explore these low coupling regions a fixed frequency excited linear amplifier would be the preferred choice, which will be covered in another part. For this part in exploring the transference of electric power via transmission between a transmitter and receiver coil via a single wire transmission line, we are most interested in the resonant regions of the system where the self-tuned oscillator allows for convenient and accurate tracking within these bands.

The first video introduces the experimental setup, instrumentation, and readings, and then looks in detail at the Z11 small signal impedance characteristics for a range of different tuning conditions for both the transmitter and receiver coils, combined with a single wire transmission medium, and both with and without multiple incandescent lamp loads.

Figures 2 below show the detailed Z11 impedance measurements that were presented in the first video, and will be referred to in the consideration of the experimental results after the second video.

The second video demonstrates interesting phenomena and effects relating to the transference of electric power from the vacuum tube generator to the transmitter, and then via the single wire transmission medium through to the receiver coil, and to finally the load at the output of the receiver. Various different modes of transmission are considered which are established by different tuning points of the experiment.

There have been a range of different interpretations as to the nature of wireless transmission of power from a resonant transmitter to a resonant receiver, through the surrounding medium, proposed as early as the late nineteen century by Maxwell[1], Tesla[2,3], Steinmetz[4] and much later by others such as Dollard et al.[5,6,7], Tucker et al. [8], and Leyh et al.[9]. Different sources have suggested different mechanisms for the transfer of power between transmitter and receiver, including the Longitudinal Magento-Dielectric mode, Multiple order magnetic field coupling, and Electric field coupling.

In my research into the transference of electric power so far, I have found most validity in both conceptual and experimental terms from wireless transmission at distances greater than that which can be attributed through near-field induction, (the conventional transformer effect), through the principle of the Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric (LMD) mode. In my consideration of the results of the experiments presented in this post, I find the LMD principle to most closely account for the observed phenomena and properties surrounding the transfer of electric power through a near-field TMT arrangement.

I consider the experiments presented in this post to be transmission in the near-field, rather than what might ordinarily be considered by conventional antenna theory the mid-range, where the distance between the transmitter and receiver is more than 2-3 times the diameter of the coils, (antenna aperture). In this case the central tuned resonance of the TMT system  is ~2Mc/s, which corresponds to a free-space wavelength of ~150m. Since the coils are connected by a single wire transmission line, and are spaced 1.5m apart, I very much consider this scenario to be near-field transmission since the receiver coil is very much less than a wavelength from the source.

The transfer of electric power in this scenario is as a result of the specific modes formed by the electric and magnetic fields of induction, and hence the transfer of power is “inducted” or “extended”, rather than propagated as would be the case for a transmitting antenna. In subsequent posts I will be presenting experiments on the telluric transfer of electric power where the wireless transmission distances are in the far-field, and are very much greater than the wavelength of the fundamental resonant frequency of the TMT system. Despite the near-field arrangement the transfer of electric power in this system is not via the conventional magnetic coupling of the “transformer effect”.

This was confirmed by removing the single wire transmission and simply terminating both bottom-ends of the secondary coils with a short wire extension, in order to lower the impedance at this end and ensure λ/4  resonation. In this condition, and when tuned over the full available frequency range, no transmission of power took place between the transmitter and receiver coils, even when both were tuned to the same resonant frequency at either the upper or lower frequency. If the conventional transformer effect occurred in the near-field then some detectable power would have been transferred between the generator and receiver load. This clearly shows that transference of electric power in this TMT experimental arrangement requires the transmission of the electric and magnetic fields of induction via a lower impedance path through the transmission medium, (in this case the single wire connection). When both of the short secondary extension wires were then subsequently connected to earth, (either independent dedicated rf grounds, or earth points from the utility supply), power was again transferred between the source and load at the correct tuning.

It is conjectured here that transference of electric power, at the correct point of tuning in this experiment, occurs through establishing the LMD mode of transmission as a standing wave between the transmitter and receiver coils, where a cavity is formed between the top-loads of the two secondary coils. In successive cycles of the generator oscillations electrical energy is coupled from the generator into the cavity. The pressure of the wavefront in the longitudinal mode moves backwards and forwards as it traverses the cavity from the transmitter to the receiver, reflected from the top load of the receiver and back again towards the transmitter where it is amplified or suppressed by coupling from subsequent cycles from the generator. Whether the longitudinal wavefront is amplified or suppressed depends on the tuning of the experiment and hence the longitudinal wavelength in the cavity.

At the correct point of  tuning the amplitude of the wavefront is reinforced by successive cycles from the generator. The magnitude of this longitudinal wavefront reaches an equilibrium in the cavity based on the impedance characteristics of the cavity medium, its tuning, and dissipation of the stored power to both the transmission medium, and to the surrounding environment. The longitudinal wavelength within the medium is longer than that of the generator excitations, which represents a lower frequency of oscillation for the longitudinal mode. This puts the electric and magnetic fields of induction at different phase relationships throughout the length of the cavity, a property of the longitudinal mode that can measured in the cavity region, and is presented in the consideration of the experimental results below.

At the correct point of tuning the di-electric and magnetic fields of induction in the LMD mode form a standing wave in the cavity which results from the longitudinal wavelength, where the boundaries of the cavity are defined by the high impedance, high potential, points at the top-loads of the coils, and one or more null points form inside the cavity. At the fundamental frequency of the LMD mode, (not the same frequency as the fundamental resonance of the secondary coils or the generator oscillations), only a single null will exist in the centre of the cavity, and when the coils are closely spaced in the near-field. At higher order harmonics, and dependent on spacing between the coils multiple null points can form.

Each of the key experimental parts is now considered in more detail, and where appropriate based on the conjecture made above regarding the LMD mode of transmission:

Single wire transmission and the LMD mode

A key feature of the presented experiments in the transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver is that power is transferred via a single wire which in itself is an unsusual method of transfer within standard electric circuit theory and experiment.

In a standard closed electric circuit current is continuous throughout the circuit with the voltage potential around the circuit dependent on the impedance of the elements and/or transmission lines that make up the circuit topology. The underlying premise is that a circuit has a forward and return path where the impedance is sufficiently low to allow for a “flow” of current from the source around the circuit, and returning to the source. Power is dissipated in the various impedances that make up the circuit according to their characteristics and the voltage and current phase relationship of the overall impedance of the circuit.

Ordinarily introducing a very high impedance, (in principle an infinite open-circuit), will reduce the current in the circuit to such a low-level, and in principle to zero, so that no current can flow around the circuit from and returning to the source, and hence no power is dissipated in that circuit. Even in an rf transmission line the normal transverse mode of transmission assumes a voltage and current distribution long the transmission line based on its distributed impedance, and its matching to the source and load terminations, where the transmission line is based on a closed circuit formed between the source and load in two or more conductive mediums between the source and load.

As can be seen in the videos the four incandescent load can be fully lit where no obvious closed circuit exists. The load is not connected between the outputs of the secondary (topload and base of the secondary), but is rather only connected via the base of a secondary. The other side of the load is left as open-circuit with a short trailing wire. Once again a cavity is formed between the top-load of the transmitter secondary and the open-circuit of the trailing wire, which would enable the LMD mode to establish. The electric and magnetic fields of induction are both present around the boundaries of the single wire, and a longitudinal wavefront is established at the longitudinal frequency in the cavity. At the upper and lower resonant frequency of the secondary energy is coupled from the generator into the cavity, and the longitudinal mode is established along the length of the cavity.

A higher impedance load placed within the electrical cavity at resonance will dissipate power in a transverse mode from the established wavefront when the electric and magnetic fields of induction local to the load are in phase. That is, the induced voltage across the load, and the induced current in the load, are predominantly in phase in the region of the load. In this case energy can then be transferred (induced) from the longitudinal wavefront to the transverse mode, and power will be dissipated in the lamp as both light and heat with a warm yellow colour temperature, as can be seen in the video. Placing the load right at the end of the wire will not light the incandescent lamp at the termination of the cavity, where the voltage and currents induced in the wire are 90° out of phase at the open-circuit termination.

Figures 3 below shows the phase relationship between the voltage and current oscillations of the generator in the primary, and the phase relationship between the voltage and the current at three different points in the single wire section of the cavity. It is conjectured that the changing phase relationship between the induced voltage and currents along the single wire is characteristic of the longitudinal mode established in the cavity, and results in unusual electrical phenomena and characteristics that are measured in TMT experimental systems.

In each figure the traces are as follows:,

Yellow – The voltage across the transmitter primary.

Green – The current through the transmitter primary, calibrated 1A/div.

Cyan – The voltage measured at centre of the single wire transmission line.

Red – The current measured through the single wire transmission line, calibrated 1A/div.

Each frequency 1.75, 1.94, and 3.32 Mc/s are measured at three different points in the single wire section of the cavity:

SWC1 – At the bottom-end of the transmitter secondary.

SWC2 – In the middle of the single wire.

SWC3 – At the bottom-end of the receiver secondary.

It is important to note from these measurements the varying change in phase relationship between the voltage and current at the transmitter, centre, and receiver ends of the single wire, (cyan and red trace), for tuned power in the receiver load, figures 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6. It is conjectured that this varying phase change across the single wire length between the voltage and the current, (~1.94Mc/s), which is hardly present when not correctly tuned for the transference of electric power (~1.75Mc/s and 3.32Mc/s), is indicative of a standing wave resonance of the LMD mode in the cavity, a cavity which has been formed by two coils that are matched at resonance in the TEM mode, and joined by a transmission medium. It is the combination of matched resonance in the TEM mode at the coils, and a tuned standing wave of the LMD mode that leads to the transference of electric power with very low loss between the generator and the final receiver load.

Tuning to power a load within the single wire transmission line

This experimental point is shown in figures 1.1 and figures 2.4, 2.7-2.9. Interestingly this condition is little different to the open-circuit terminated single wire case discussed above. However, now both transmitter and receiver are connected together via the single wire transmission line which also contains an incandescent lamp load. The single wire lamps could be tuned to light fully at either the lower or upper resonant frequencies of the combined secondary coils, with no or very little power dissipated in the final load at the receiver primary.

Once again a cavity is formed between the two top-loads of the transmitter and receiver secondaries, and through the single wire transmission line, the LMD mode is present, and there is a varying phase relationship between the voltage and current measured in the single wire. The  mis-match in tuning between the transmitter and receiver means that, whilst the LMD mode is always present, it is not tuned to form a standing wave in the cavity. There are no detectable null points along the single wire and the neon lamp at the top-load of the receiver is not lit, showing that there is no high-potential at the top-end of the receiver coil. In this case the TMT transmission system is not tuned between the transmitter and receiver and so no power is being coupled through the receiver coil to its load. The system appears almost identical to the open-circuit single wire case above.

Energy is being coupled at the secondary resonant frequency from the generator into the transmitter secondary in the transverse mode, and the mis-match in tuning between the high-Q transmitter and receiver means that energy is not reaching the receiver coil but rather being consumed in the load in the single wire. This is further demonstrated in the video when the receiver secondary is unplugged from the single wire the lamps of the load in the single wire stay lit, they do change intensity slightly as the tuning changes, but can be returned back to full brightness by slight adjustment at the transmitter primary capacitor.

In summary, the transference of electric power from the generator to the single wire load occurs at the lower or upper resonant frequency of the transmitter coil, and is largely independent of the mis-matched termination at the other end of the single wire, whether that be a simple open-circuit, or short-circuit to ground, or another mis-matched resonant circuit such as a TMT receiver.

Tuning to power a load at the output of the receiver

This experimental point is shown in figures 1.2 and figures 2.5, and 2.6.  With careful tuning there is a very narrow band, as seen on the video, where the high-Q TMT transmitter and receiver are tuned very accurately to one another, and power can be transferred directly between the transmitter and receiver via the single wire transmission, and with very little power dissipated in the single wire or its load. In this experimental setup the tuned frequency at the generator is between ~1.92 – 2.05 Mc/s to demonstrate the transference of electric power between generator and final load.

In this scenario the LMD mode is tuned in the cavity to form a standing wave, a null point is present at the centre of the path length of the cavity, which in this experiment where the single wire load was placed. Both top-loads are at maximum potential indicating that the cavity is in the fundamental resonant frequency of the LMD mode, that is nλLMD/2,  where n=1 and there is a high potential point at the transmitter top-load, a zero potential null point in the single wire, (at the single wire load), and a high potential point at the receiver top-load.

Overall this is now the special condition where firstly, the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) is matched independently for both the transmitter and receiver coils, so they are both able to couple maximum energy, the transmitter from the generator, and the receiver to its load, at the same resonant frequency. This is secondly combined with the LMD mode formed in the secondary coil of the transmitter TMT, and tuned within the cavity of the single wire transmission medium to form a standing wave, where in its fundamental mode a single null point exists in the centre of the single wire transmission medium. The combination of the TEM and LMD modes both correctly tuned, leads to an inter-dependent balanced condition within the electrical system, where transference of electric power between the generator and load can occur with minimal loss.

In principle, transmission in this mode could cover great distances where an LMD standing wave is established in a transmission cavity where there are many null points along the single medium of the conductor, whether that be a wire, the earth, or other lower impedance or resonant medium. Again in principle with the correct setup of the TEM and LMD modes in the complete system very little power need be lost in the transmission medium, which can be tuned correctly by detecting the null points in the medium, and the varying phase relationship of the measured voltages and currents in the medium, which appears at this stage to be an indication of the LMD mode.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far:

1. In consideration of the experimental results presented and phenomena observed, it is conjectured that the LMD mode is established in a resonating coil when a cavity is formed between the top-load of the coil, in this case an open-circuit with a neon indicator bulb, and the outer boundary point of the circuit connected to the bottom-end of the coil. The LMD mode enables transmission of the electric and magnetic fields of induction together around the boundary of the single transmission medium, in this case around the outside of the single wire. The magnetic and di-electric fields of the LMD mode are in the same plane of travel and hence constitute a longitudinal pressure wavefront that traverses the cavity reflecting from the high impedance boundaries at each end and establishing an LMD wave with wavelength distinct from the transverse resonant wavelength of the transmitter and receiver secondary coils.

2. When the LMD mode is not established as a standing wave within the cavity of the single transmission medium the energy coupled from the generator into the transmitter coil by transverse induction is consumed by a higher impedance load in the single transmission medium, or with inadequate load in the transmission medium will be discharged to the surrounding environment through streamers at the high potential top-load.

3. When an LMD standing wave is established in the cavity, and the high-Q transmitter and receiver coils are both resonating in equilibrium with each other in the very narrow matched band (~1.92Mc/s – 2.05Mc/s) power is transferred directly from the generator to the final load at the receiver, with very little energy consumed in the single transmission medium

4. An LMD standing wave can be established in a cavity that is geometrically and electrically reciprocal at each end, e.g. with an identical TMT transmitter and receiver designed to resonate at the same transverse frequency, which causes the longitudinal pressure wave to be reflected from each end of the cavity.

5. Where the wavelength of the LMD mode is a whole number of half-wavelengths nλLMD/2, amplification of the LMD mode will occur in the transmitter until a dynamic equilibrium is established within the electrical system and with the surrounding medium. In this case the null point/s of the standing wave can be measured in the single transmission medium, and tuned carefully either side of this point will show the null point to move towards either end of the single transmission medium, before collapse of the standing wave at the coil boundaries.

6. The LMD standing wave mode could be indicated by a varying phase change between the voltage and current waveforms measured along the length of the transmission medium. It is conjectured that this phase change is preliminary evidence of the amplified longitudinal mode established in the cavity.

7. The combination of the TEM and LMD modes both correctly tuned, leads to an inter-dependent balanced condition within the electrical system, where transference of electric power between the generator and load can occur with minimal loss.

The preliminary results for the transference of electric power in the near-field indicate that considerable more study is required on the various transmission modes present in the TMT system, and particularly a more detailed measurement and study of the phase relationships of the electric and magnetic fields of induction in the transmission medium, and the difference in the resonant wavelengths of the transverse and the longitudinal modes. These two modes appear to interact constructively and in an inter-dependent way when tuned for the optimal transference of electric power between the generator and the receiver load.


1. Maxwell, J., A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Phil. Trans. Royal Society, pg459-pg512, January 1865.

2. Tesla, N., System of transmission of electrical energy, US Patent US645576A, March 20, 1900.

3. Tesla, N., Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum Beograd, 1978.

4. Steinmetz, C., Elementary Lectures on Electric Discharges, Waves and Impulses, and Other Transients, McGraw-Hill Publication, 1911.

5. Dollard, E., Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers, Borderland Sciences Publication, 1986.

6. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.

7. Dollard, E. and Energetic Forum Members, Energetic Forum, 2008 onwards.

8. Tucker, C. & Warwick, K. & Holderbaum, W., A Contribution to the Wireless Transmission of Power, Electrical Power and Energy Systems 47 p235-242, 2013.

9. Leyh, G. & Kennan, M., Efficient Wireless Transmission of Power Using Resonators with Coupled Electric Fields, Nevada Lightning Laboratory, 40th North American Power Symposium, 2008.