Single Wire Currents – Part 1

Part 1 of single wire currents investigates the voltages and currents generated in the secondary coil, and connected load circuit, when the primary is driven from a suitable generator. In this part the generator used is a high voltage vacuum tube oscillator which derives the feedback for oscillation directly from the dominant flat coil resonant frequency.

The design, construction, and measurement of this generator, and its matching and tuning circuit, will be reported in subsequent posts. For clarity here the following different types of generator have been built and tested in a wide range of different experiments:

1. Vacuum tube generator driven either by an external high power oscillator, or directly as a self-tuned oscillator using feedback from the secondary coil. Can be driven in CW (carrier or continuous wave), burst, or modulated modes.

2. Spark gap generator, (static or rotary), driving directly a primary matching and tuning circuit, (tuning circuit as shown in Fig. 1.4 below).

3. Spark gaps driving a modern replica of an H.G. Fischer diathermy generator.

4. An original 1920’s H.G. Fischer diathermy generator.

Experiments in single wire currents investigate the interesting and unusual properties that result from high voltage and often high frequency waves emitted from a suitable source or generator and guided by a single wire to a load. The single wire nature means that power is passed from the generator to the load, and where the load is able to utilise this power to do work, through only a single wire. In a standard electric circuit a source of electric power such as a battery or an oscillator would be connected from both the +ve and -ve terminals for a current (dc or ac) to move around the circuit, and doing work in the circuit dependent on the characteristics and nature of the circuit. In this case if one of the terminals were removed, the circuit would be considered open-circuit, no current would flow, and no power could be utilised to do work within the circuit. In the single wire case the power conveyed through the electric and magnetic fields of induction easily do measurable work e.g. lighting an incandescent bulb, whilst the current in the circuit appears to be guided only by a single wire, that is, there is no obvious return wire for the current to pass back to the generator and create the required “circuit” for the classical conduction of electric current.

In part 1 of this experiment a vacuum tube generator is used to apply an rf sinusoidal (ac) current to the primary of the flat coil in CW mode. By extension of the magnetic field of induction to the secondary coil a magnified electric field of induction (emf) is induced across the secondary of the coil. When the secondary coil is further connected to a load via a wire at the bottom-end, or outer-end, an oscillating current (resulting from a reciprocal inter-action between the electric and magnetic fields of induction) is guided by the conductor of the wire to the load. In conjunction a pick-up coil is used behind the secondary to induce a small part of the magnified wave and feed this back to the vacuum tube oscillator. This positive feedback signal drives the oscillator at the dominant (tuned) frequency of the flat coil, in this case the lower resonant frequency FL at ~ 1850kc/s where CP ~ 900pF. In this way the circuit can be measured at a single frequency which can be tuned and adjusted using the primary capacitance CP.

Figures 1. show the generator connected flat coil 1S-3P to be used in the single wire current experiments, and including the primary tuning circuit with primary capacitance CP, in this case a 4kV vacuum capacitor:

Figures 2. show the single wire current experimental apparatus, including measurement equipment and probes:

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Fig 2.1. Shows the overall experimental apparatus, measurement probes, and equipment. The vacuum tube generator feeds the connections to the tuning unit with the primary capacitance. A high voltage differential probe Pintech DP-50 is connected across the primary capacitance to show the electric potential VP applied across its terminals. A current probe Tektronix A6303 is connected around the wire between the primary capacitor and the plates of the vacuum tubes to show the electric current IP moving through the primary circuit. Inserted between the high voltage tank capacitor and the input to the primary is a Weston model 425 rf ammeter (either 1A or 5A full scale deflection (fsd) dependent on generator output, and with internal thermocouple), to additionally monitor the primary rf currents IPRF.

In the secondary circuit the top-end of the flat coil is terminated with a 240V 5W (UK standard) neon bulb to act as an indicator of the magnitude of induced electric potential or tension, and to contain the top-end with a defined impedance. This containment assists in stabilising the resonant cavity formed by the secondary coil, and without significantly loading the coil and effecting the upper and lower resonant frequencies, or the Q-factor. The bottom-end of the secondary coil is connected by short wire to another Weston model 425 rf ammeter (250mA fsd) combined with a parallel 5Ω shunt to make 500mA fsd and to monitor the secondary rf currents ISRF.

The bottom-end of the coil is also connected to a high-voltage probe Pintech HVP40 40kV 1000:1 passive probe to monitor the secondary potential VS at the lower terminal. The output of the secondary ammeter is connected to the load, which in this case is 4 x 240V 25W (UK standard) pygmy bulbs with vertically laced filaments. The bulbs can be connected in a variety of arrangements, but were here used in a two parallel twin series connected arrangement so that all 4 bulbs will light as the load. The output of the load was connected to an 80cm flying lead. Secondary current IS was monitored in various places using a second Tektronix A6303 current probe.

The outputs of probes VP and IP from the primary, and VS and IS from the secondary, were passed to the inputs a four input oscilloscope HP54542C for measurement and comparison. In addition the signal VP was fed to a Tektronix DC5009 Universal Counter to confirm the oscillation frequency of the primary circuit. This frequency of oscillation was also monitored via a Tektronix 7L5 spectrum analyser fed by a small whip antenna at the input. Throughout the experiment the Tektronix current probes 2 x A6303 connected to AM503B current probe amplifiers were set on 1A AC /division. The total input power to generator PIN, (input to the high voltage transformers only), was monitored using a Yokogawa WT200 digital power meter.

Fig 2.2. Shows that at an input power of PIN = 319W @ 1851kc/s, IPRF ~ 700mA, ISRF ~ 240mA (2 x 120), and a 80cm fly lead connected to the output of the load bulbs, that all the bulbs are lit with the first two bulbs being lit brightly whilst the second two bulbs are only dimly lit. The measured waveforms will be considered in more detail in Figures 3.

Fig 2.3. Shows that under the same electrical conditions with the fly lead removed from the second load bulbs the intensity of the bulbs is greatly reduced. The first set of load bulbs are now dimly lit, whereas the second set of load bulbs are not visibly illuminated. ISRF has also reduced considerably to ~ 100mA (2 x 50mA), whilst IPRF  increased slightly to ~ 770mA, at a PIN = 318W @ 1860kc/s. Here the frequency of oscillation has increased slightly due to the reduction in wire length with the fly lead removed, although vacuum tube generator has compensated automatically to shift resonance to the new resonant frequency via the secondary pick-up coil. The most important feature here is that in single wire current experiments loads will not power when no fly lead or terminating lead is connected to their output. In the case of a bulb it will not light when it is the last device connected to the single wire.

Fig 2.4. Shows the effect of introducing a conductive material close to the load in this case an aluminium leaf suspended by masking tape from an insulated support. Within a certain distance the aluminium leaf is attracted to the bulb outer glass surface and can remain held in this place until the generator is turned off. It appears a force is applied to the aluminium leaf that will move and/or retain the leaf in a distance offset from the vertical. This unusual result has been investigated in a variety of different ways and will be introduced here, to be further investigated and described in subsequent parts.

In the case of the CW vacuum tube generator (VTG-CW) the waveform induced in the secondary circuit is a steady and constant oscillation at a single frequency. This is a very linear and determinate condition and has been found to have the least intensity on the phenomena of attraction of conductive materials. At input powers typically 250W upwards in the experimental apparatus shown the aluminium leaf is very slightly attracted to the bulb glass. If placed only 1mm from the surface then the leaf will be pulled directly from vertical to a point on the glass bulb surface and held there. For distances x between the leaf and the bulb in the range 1mm < x < 15mm, and for the VTG in CW mode, the leaf can be held in place when initially placed on the bulb surface. Above ~15mm the aluminium leaf will not be retained on the bulb surface but will swing back to the vertical position.

The magnitude of the force applied to the aluminium leaf increases with the input power PIN to the generator and hence ISRF in the secondary wire. The overall effect is similar to observing a magnetic metal attracted to a magnet at close range, or the effect of electrostatic attraction in the case of opposite charged metal plates spaced slightly apart. In this case however it appears that the effect is based on the electric field of induction being dominant in the scenario rather than magnetic field of induction. When a permanent magnet is introduced into the experiment it has no influence on the attraction of the aluminium leaf either in being attracted towards the bulb, away from it, or being held on the bulb surface.

The intensity of the attraction and hence the magnitude of the applied force on the leaf has been found to increase significantly with burst, impulse, and modulated waveforms. With a burst or impulse waveform from the generator it is easily seen that at PIN > 400W the leaf can be instantly attracted to the bulb and move from the vertical over distances as much as 20mm, and then held there strongly on the surface of the glass.  in this case even with the generator turned off the leaf can be retained for up to 60 seconds on the surface of the bulb before being released and swinging back to the horizontal.

Other types of leaf material have also been tested, and those found to readily be attracted and retained to the bulb glass have a conductive element to them, including metals like aluminium and copper, organic materials such as living tissue, plant matter (e.g. leaves), and paper, cardboard, and woods with a certain content of moisture in them. In the case of organic living tissue the presence of my hand in the vicinity of the light bulb, but not touching, greatly increases the effect even in CW mode. For man-made synthetic materials such as plastic and other insulating mediums there is normally no discernible attraction towards the bulb. At very high voltages and high input powers PIN > 1000W a plastic leaf was found to attracted to the bulb surface over a tiny distance < 0.5mm but could not be retained on the surface of the bulb even when placed directly on the surface.

With the aluminium leaf the voltage on the leaf was measured during the process of attraction and was found to rise to a high dc potential usually in the order of several hundred volts in the experiment thus described. This indicates a form of “charging” like the plate of a capacitor when exposed to a dc potential higher or lower than the surrounding environment. In this case the electric field of induction appears to have created a region of potential difference and tension between the material of the leaf, where the leaf has become “charged” to an opposite polarity than that present on the glass surface of the bulb. It is conjectured here that an electric wavefront (a positive dc level or impulse rather than a varying sinusoid) is emitted from the exposed wire of the bulb filament (itself a tiny extra coil and leading to an imbalance between the magnetic and electric fields of induction). These continuous wavefronts result in charge accumulation on the surface of the conductive material which establishes an electric field between the bulb filament and the conductive material. The electric field results in a force exerted on the aluminium leaf which is pulled towards the glass surface. As the conductors of the filament and the leaf are prevented to come into contact by the glass bulb the electric field is not collapsed by shorting the two together, and the leaf can be retained firmly on the glass surface as it remains “charged” by the presented wavefronts.

It is suggested that the attraction is not likely to be magnetic in nature, and as a result of eddy currents in the conductive material induced by the presence of a time varying magnetic field, as the phenomena cannot be influenced by other magnetic fields in very close vicinity, such as permanent magnets and electromagnets. It would be expected that the magnetic field generated by eddy currents in the leaf would be disturbed by the introduction of a strong permanent magnet, however no such disturbances have been observed or measured.

To eliminate effects due to convection and movement of air due to heating of the glass bulb a control experiment connected the same bulb type, a 240V 25W pygmy bulb, to a normal domestic ac outlet so that it would light to normal intensity and heating. The aluminium leaf was then placed in very close proximity to the bulb surface ~ 0.5mm with no discernible movement towards the bulb over any length of time the control experiment was conducted.

Fig 2.5. Shows in close-up detail the attraction of an aluminium leaf to the surface of the load bulb and being retained on the surface until the generator is turned off. In this case with the VTG in CW mode the attraction is not strong enough to pull the leaf from the vertical over a distance of 15mm to the bulb surface. The applied force is however strong enough to retain the leaf on the surface of the bulb at a distance of 15mm from the vertical, and once placed on the surface of the bulb.

Fig 2.6. Shows the experimental apparatus from the reverse side with the generator attached to the tuning unit, the rf ammeters in the primary and secondary, and the generator tank capacitor meter in the far bottom right showing a tank voltage of ~ 800V dc.

Fig 2.7. Shows the vacuum tube generator, primary measurement probes in the background, and the test equipment setup with PIN = 479W, the primary and secondary voltages and currents measured on the oscilloscope, and the measured oscillation frequency of the primary FP = 1.850Mc/s on the frequency counter.

Fig 2.8. Shows the spectral response of the emitted electric field in vicinity of the experimental setup and as measured by the Tektronix 7L5 spectrum analyser connected to a small whip antenna as shown in the bottom right of the picture. The spectral response shows a significant peak at ~1850kHz, and small possibly “artefact” peak at ~1950kHz.

Fig 2.9. Shows particularly the change in oscillation frequency measured in the primary circuit when the fly lead was removed from the output of the bulb load. The oscillation frequency of the experiment changes from ~1850kc/s to ~1860kc/s.

Figures 3. show the voltage and current waveforms for the primary and secondary and their phase relationship:

Fig 3.1. Shows the primary and secondary voltage and current measurements VP (trace 1) and IP (trace 2), and VS (trace 3) and IS (trace 4) respectively. VP is a sinusoidal oscillating voltage VPK-PK ~ 2kV. IP is more in the form of a pulsed current where the trace is calibrated 1V per amp and showing IPK-PK of ~ 2A. The phase of the current IP is leading VP by ~90° indicating that the generator appears to be driving a reactive load that is predominantly capacitive in a class-C amplifier arrangement. This is to be expected as the 180° phase change of the primary has been shown to exist at a much higher frequency than the impedance maximum for the primary would indicate. Operated in this way the primary and secondary are not at resonance simultaneously, the primary circuit is oscillating with a driven ac, whilst the secondary is acting as a free resonator at its tuned resonant frequency which determines the driven frequency in the primary.

As the voltage VP rises across the primary the current IP is maximum and falls rapidly as the primary capacitor Cis charged by the tank capacitor, on which that energy is released through the inductance of the primary coil reversing the current flow and discharging CP. This yields current pulses of sufficient magnitude for the magnetic field of induction to dominate and extend to the secondary coil. The secondary coil is not tightly coupled to the primary and so can reasonably resonate freely as the generator oscillates at a frequency determined by feedback from the secondary to the generator pick-up coil.

Using the VTG in cw mode it is important to note that the secondary is constantly being excited by the primary in a linear continuous fashion. There is no charge and discharge phase in the secondary as would occur in a burst or impulse driven primary. In this case the VTG is driving the flat coil in a very linear condition where the system operates at one set frequency, and the dominant majority of energy is conveyed at the fundamental resonant frequency, with very little contribution from harmonics. In this case we would expect phenomena that arise from the imbalance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction to be minimal, which is so far confirmed by measurement of single wire phenomena including deflection of conductive materials, and dc charging of capacitive loads.

The freely resonating secondary shows VP and Iwhich are in phase in traces 3 and 4, which is to be expected for a freely resonating coil driven with a very linear continuous wave. VS at the bottom-end or outer-end of the secondary coil is ~1kVPK-PK, and the current IP measured by the current probe prior to the load (as shown in Fig. 2.2) is ~ 2APK-PK (1V per amp calibrated on the current probe amplifier).

Fig 3.2. Shows the change in waveforms when the fly lead is removed from the end of the load, and the secondary current probe is connected through the fly lead. The frequency of oscillation has increased due to the reduced wire length in the experiment to ~1860kc/s (as measured by the frequency counter and spectrum analyser, rather than the marker frequency of the oscilloscope). The primary waveforms Vand IP remain largely the same in amplitude, phase, and form. The secondary voltage VS has increased as the effective load is reduced in the secondary, and IS has gone to zero as the fly lead, from which the current is being measured, has been disconnected from the output of the load. In this case the final load bulbs were not lighted, and the first load bulbs were lit only dimly with a significant reduction in ISRF.

Fig 3.3. Confirms the electric field detected in the vicinity of the experiment throughout the measurement period, where the pick-up whip antenna is located ~ 3m from the load bulbs.

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Figures 4. show the Z11 input impedance characteristics of the experimental apparatus:

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below:

Fig 4.1. Shows the small signal input impedance Z11 as seen by the generator of the complete experimental apparatus with all measurement probes connected, and the fly lead connected at the output of the bulb load. The impedance characteristics show that the experiment tuning is operating very close to the balanced point between the lower and upper resonant frequency, FL and FU, of the flat coil. This is the point where there is expected to be best balance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction between the primary and the secondary coils, and in this case the best experimental starting point when investigating the displacement and transference of electric power through non-linear processes. FL measured when running the single wire current experiments was ~1850kc/s, and from the impedance characteristics 1889kc/s a variation of ~2%, and most likely due to differences between the small-signal and large-signal operation points of the flat coil, tuning components, and generator mode of operation (cw class-C).

Fig 4.2. Shows the result of removing the fly lead the length of wire in the secondary section of the experiment has been reduced, and hence the frequency increased from ~1850kc/s to ~1860kc/s. This is also indicated by the impedance characteristics where the 180° phase change frequency FØ180 has shifted from 2345kc/s in Fig. 4.1 up to 2388kc/s. This has also created a greater imbalance between  FL and FU.

Fig 4.3. Shows the result of removing the experiment from the bottom-end or outer-end of the secondary coil. All frequencies are shifted up due to the change again in wire length, and also the change of impedance at the bottom-end from lower to higher, and away from the λ/4 mode.

Fig 4.4. With the primary capacitance CP removed the impedance characteristics of the experiment revert to the loaded properties of the secondary coil with a single resonant frequency, and there is no established balance between the electric and magnetic fields of induction between the primary and the secondary.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far:

1. Single wire currents have been observed and measured using a flat coil driven by a vacuum tube generator in cw mode. The current measured in the single wire, and its properties thus far observed, would appear to suggest that rf energy from the wire is escaping along its length to the surrounding environment which acts as an energy sink, ground, or -ve terminal, which then effectively completes the circuit. High energy rf  as a result of the magnified voltage produced by the secondary coil, is easily radiated from all parts of the conductor that forms the wire through to the end of the fly lead. With this being the case, and with the voltage and current being in phase in the secondary, real power is generated to drive the load bulbs which emit both light and heat.  With the fly lead removed the final load bulbs do not light as there is insufficient length of conductor to act as a suitable radiator or sink “to ground”. It is expected that any load connected to the end of the single wire will not be driven as there is insufficient energy sink on the output of the load to enable a current to be developed through the load. With this being the case the energy sink is distributed along the length of the wire so that the current along the wire would not be a constant value, as might be expected normally for the current flowing through a circuit. In part 2 of single wire currents it will be necessary to measure the magnitude and phase of the current along the wire length as a function of distributed load which would then allow a more accurate picture, and hence interpretation, of single wire current action in a circuit.

2. Standing waves were not observed or measured along the length of the single wire in this experiment, but rather the magnitude of the oscillating voltage appears to remain relatively constant along the length of wire, whilst the current reduces with load and distance along the wire. This will be further investigated in part 2 where a more accurate voltage and current distribution will be measured with wire length and load distribution.

3. A force applied to a conductive medium in close proximity to a load on the wire, in this case a lighted incandescent bulb filament, has been observed and investigated at first stage. The phenomena, at this stage, appears to result from a form of electric attraction between the filament of the bulb the emitter, and the conductive medium. The effect does not appear to be influenced by other close proximity magnetic fields such as permanent magnets, and electromagnets, which also suggests that the phenomena does not result from eddy currents generated in the conductive medium. A range of different materials have been tested, and all that show a significant attraction towards the load bulb, have a conductive element or property. The effect is also greatly amplified in the presence of a significant energy sink such as the hand of a person. In cw mode no discernible force could be registered on the surface of the hand when placed in close proximity to a load bulb. This has been subsequently demonstrated when driving the generator in burst or impulse mode and will be presented in detail in subsequent parts.

4. The impedance characteristics indicate that the complete experiment was operated in a well-balanced mode of the flat coil, which suggests a good starting point for further, and more detailed investigation, of the displacement and transference of electric power through non-linear events.

Click here to continue to Transference of Electric Power – Part 1.


1. A & P Electronic Media, AMInnovations by Adrian Marsh, 2019,  EMediaPress


 

ESTC 2019 – Tesla’s Colorado Springs Experiment

ESTC 2019, the Energy, Science, and Technology Conference[1], included a presentation and working demonstration by Eric Dollard on Tesla’s Colorado Springs experiment[2] (TCS), which is available through A & P Electronic Media[3,4]. Due to unforseen circumstances relating to the demonstration co-worker, the generator for this experiment was unavailable after the demonstration for additional experimentation, investigation, and follow-up demonstrations. In agreement with Eric Dollard I suggested that the spark gap generator from the Vril Science Multiwave Oscillator Product[5], (MWO), could be adapted, tuned, and applied to the Colorado Springs experiment, and in order to facilitate ongoing investigation and experimentation throughout the conference period. What follows in this post is the story of how this successful endeavour unfolded in the form of videos, pictures, measurements, and of course the final results.

The first video below shows highlights from the endeavour, video footage was recorded and supplied by Paul Fraser, and reproduced here with permission from A & P Electronic Media.

The second video below shows highlights from the impedance measurements part of the endeavour, video footage again by Paul Fraser, and by Raui Searle.

Figures 1 below show a range of pictures of the original transmitter and receiver setup from Eric Dollard’s TCS demonstration, including the generator used to power the experiment, and key results from the original demonstration. The red “transmitter” coil (RTC) was subsequently modified after the demonstration, (secondary coil re-wound, and with a single copper strap primary), in order to work well with the MWO spark gap generator. The green “receiver” coil (GRC) was left un-modified for the purpose of the endeavour, although it could be fine tuned using the extra coil telescopic extension. Ultimately for on-going experiments using the MWO generator, the GRC would be re-wound and adapted to more closely match the RTC.

The original TCS demonstration was powered by a 1000W linear amplifier generator being driven at ~ 800W output to light a 500W incandescent bulb at the receiver primary, and where the electric power is transferred between the RTC and GRC by a single wire. The TCS demonstration with both coils fully configured and connected to the generator was tuned to a drive frequency of 848.4 kc/s, as can be seen in fig. 1.9 as the selected frequency of the transceiver.

The transceiver is an ICOM-7300 which must have been modified to allow transmit on all frequencies, a modification that allows a radio amateur transceiver to generate a transmit signal outside of the designated amateur bands. This kind of modification turns a transceiver into a powerful bench top signal generator, with full modulation capabilities, and matched output powers from the transceiver alone of up to 100W in the MF and HF bands (300kc/s – 30Mc/s). 848 kc/s is in the MW (MF) radio broadcast band, and amplitude modulation is well suited here for the transmission of voice and music signals, as was also demonstrated in the original experiment.

The ICOM transceiver is connected via a matching unit to the Denton linear amplifier. This specific brand and model of linear amplifier has no matching unit at its input, which is why external matching is required from the ICOM 50Ω output to the lower impedance Denton input. The passive matching unit is shown in fig. 1.10, and also in the schematic of fig. 2.1.

The Denton Clipperton-L is a linear amplifier using 4 x 572B vacuum tubes with a band selected matching unit at its output, and a total output peak voltage of ~ 500V. The lowest band provided internally for matching at the output of the amplifier is the HF 160m band at ~ 1.8Mc/s. The much lower MW signal at 848kc/s would need additional matching and balancing between the amplifier output and the input to the primary of the RTC, (the output of the amplifier is an unbalanced feed e.g. coaxial, whereas the connecting transmission line and the primary are better fed with a balanced feed). The amplifier passive matching unit is shown in figures 1.6 – 1.8, and is also shown in the schematic of fig. 2.1.

The various different experiments conducted in the original demonstration included the following:

Fig 1.13. Shows Eric Dollard finding the null electric field region between the RTC and GRC, and using a 6′ domestic fluorescent tube light.

Fig 1.14. Shows Eric Dollard testing the field surrounding the RTC extra coil extension top load, using a helium-neon gas filled tube.

Fig 1.15. Shows single wire transmission of electric power, and fully lighting a 500W incandescent light bulb at the primary of the GRC.

Figures 2 below show the schematics for both the linear amplifier generator and coil arrangement for Eric Dollard’s original TCS demonstration, and a second schematic for the TCS experiment retune using the MWO spark gap generator. The high-resolution versions can be viewed by clicking on the following links TCS Demonstration, and TCS Retune.

Figures 3 below show the small signal impedance measurements for Z11 for the TCS coils, and also the tuning measurements for the coils and spark gap generator together, which were taken throughout the endeavour and used to ensure a well tuned match between the generator and the TCS experiment.

To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below, and for a more detailed explanation of the mathematical symbols used in the analysis of the results click here. For further detail in the analysis and consideration of Z11 typical for a Tesla coil based system click here.

Fig 3.1. Shows the impedance measurements for the RTC with the secondary grounded, the extra coil disconnected, and where the primary tank capacitance has been arranged to be series CP = 40pf, which puts the primary resonant frequency FP at a much higher frequency and far away from the secondary. This would be the proper drive condition for the original linear amplifier generator (LAG) where FP is not arranged to be equal to FS. For the spark gap generator (SGG) it is necessary to match FP as closely as possible to the combined resonant frequency of the secondary and the extra coil together.  The fundamental parallel resonant frequency of the secondary Fs at M1 = 1326kc/s, and as is to be expected with this form of air-cored coil, the FØ180 or series resonant point at which a 180° phase change occurs, is at a higher frequency at 1571kc/s at M2. At M3 = 2398kc/s a tiny resonance is being coupled from the disconnected extra coil which, being mounted in the centre on axis with the secondary, is close enough to have a non-zero coupling coefficient, and hence show some slight resonation reflected into the measurement.

Fig 3.2. Here the extra coil has been reconnected and two resonant features can be noted, the lower from the secondary, and the upper from the extra coil. The effect of the coupled resonance between the two coils with a non-zero coupling coefficient is to push the secondary resonance down in frequency to where the FS at M1 is now at 826kc/s which is very close to the original drive frequency of the linear amplifier generator at 848kc/s. The fundamental resonant frequency of the extra coil, (now in λ/4 mode with one end at a lower impedance connected to the secondary, and the other connected to the high impedance of the extendable aerial), at M3 is now 1725kc/s

Fig 3.3. Here both the RTC and GRC have been connected together to complete the overall system, and where the bottom end of both secondaries are connected together by a single wire transmission line. Both the RTC and GRC have their extra coil adjustable extensions fully extended. It can be seen that both the secondary and extra coil resonant frequencies have been split in two, to reveal four resonant frequencies from the four main coils, 2 in the RTC, and 2 in the GRC. The markers at M1 at 833kc/s and M3 are due to the secondary resonance in the RTC and GRC respectively, and the markers at M5 at 1752kc/s and M7 at 1801kc/s are due to the extra coils. It can be noted that the impedance of the RTC and GRC are not well-balanced the resonance is stronger on the RTC side where |Z| at M1 ~ 741Ω, and M3 ~ 342Ω. During running operation with either the LAG or SGG this would result in more energy stored in the RTC coil, the standing wave null on the single wire transmission line would be pushed away from the RTC and towards the GRC, and less power would be available at the output of the primary in the GRC.

Fig 3.4. Here the lengths of the extra coil extensions have been adjusted to balance |Z| at M1 and M3 at ~500Ω. The RTC extended length was 57cm, and the GRC extended length was 84cm, measured from the copper to aerial join, and to the base of the ball top load. With very fine adjustment, which is very difficult to accomplish, it may be possible to also balance |Z| for the extra coils at M5 and M7. This would result in the ideal balanced and equilibrium state, where the electric and magnetic fields of induction are balanced across the entire system, energy storage is equal, the null point is equidistant between the RTC and the GRC, and maximum power can be transferred between the two coils. In practice, when |Z| for the fundamental secondary resonance is equal, as shown, the overall system can be considered to be well-balanced, and will perform close to its maximum performance. Very slight adjustments to the drive frequency from the generator can then be used to nudge the system into the best overall balance and match. FS at M1 is now 858kc/s which is now close to the original drive frequency of the LAG at 848kc/s.

Fig 3.5. Shows the impedance characteristics of the RTC from the perspective of the SGG. The vector network analyser (VNA) is connected to the outputs of the spark gaps in the generator, so the characteristics include the tank capacitance of 6.1nF and the primary coil, which in this case is 2 turns of 1/4″ copper pipe. It can be seen that the resonant frequency of the primary FP is somewhat below FS as M1 at 549kc/s, and is moving away from M2 and M3. FS has also reduced to 801kc/s at M2 which also shows that the loading in the primary is too much. The inductance of the primary coil, or the tank capacitance, needs to be reduced in order to establish a better match between the generator and the RTC.

Fig 3.6. Here the number of turns of the primary has been reduced to one, which reduces the inductance in the primary resonant circuit with the generator. M1 is now closer to M2 and M3 and the FS has now increased to 819kc/s. The tuning between the generator and the RTC has now swung slightly the other way and the primary is pushing upwards on the secondary characteristics. This state is however a better state of tune than that shown in figure 3.5. It can also be seen that FE for the extra coil is cleaner and less impacted by the primary resonance. Additional fine tuning of the system would ultimately be accomplished by moving one side of the primary connection a certain distance around the circumference of the primary loop, (to form a fractional number of turns in the primary e.g. 1.4), and gain balanced and equidistant spacing for markers M1 and Mfrom M2.

Fig 3.7. Here the single turn copper pipe primary has been replaced with a single turn copper strap, which was deemed to present a lower impedance to the generator, and improve the magnitude of the oscillating currents in the primary. In order to further improve the tuning two 22nF 3kV capacitors in parallel (44nF) were added to one of the outputs of the SGG as shown in the schematic of figure 2.2. This reduced the tank capacitance slightly from 6.1nF to 5.4nF. The inductance of the strap was measured to be 2.5uH which combined with the tank capacitance of 5.4nF provides a theoretical lumped element resonant frequency of 1370kc/s. referring back to figure 3.1 it can be seen that FS, the resonant frequency of the secondary, without the extra coil at M1 is 1326kc/s. So the primary circuit tuned and driven at this point has a very close match to the secondary coil, which ensures that maximum energy can be coupled from the primary to the secondary, and then combined with the extra coil, maximum power can be transferred from the generator to the RTC, and ultimately to the GRC when further connected. For the purposes of this endeavour this state of retune was considered adequate for further demonstration and exploration of the Colorado Springs experiment.

The experimental phenomena observed during the operation of the TCS experiment, retuned to work with the MWO generator, can be seen in the first video on this page.

Summary of the endeavour:

The overall endeavour facilitated the demonstration and exploration of tuning and operating the MWO spark gap generator to work with the Colorado Springs demonstration. In the process the RTC primary and secondary needed to be modified for optimum running with the SGG. Throughout the endeavour a wide range of measurements were demonstrated including:

1. Z11 impedance measurements for the series fed secondary and extra coil, for the RTC.

2. Z11 impedance measurements for the primary combined with the secondary, and the exta coil, for the RTC.

3. Combined Z11 impedance measurements for both the RTC and GRC, where the bottom ends of both secondaries were connected together to form a single wire transmission line.

4. Fine tuning of the system by adjusting the wire length of the extra coil extensions, in order to balance |Z11| in the fundamental and second harmonics.

5. Z11 impedance measurements using a computer connected vector network analyser.

The endeavour also facilitated the demonstration and exploration of the following interesting Tesla related phenomena:

6. Single wire electric power transmission.

7. Longitudinal transmission of electric power.

8. Emission of radiant energy pulses from an incandescent bulb.

9. Radiant energy pulses attracting metal to the bulb.

10. Amplification of radiant energy by interaction with a human hand.

11. Transference of electric power between a TMT “transmitter” and “receiver”.


1. ESTC 2019, Energy, Science, and Technology Conference, A & P Electronic Media , 2019, ESTC

2. Dollard E., Preview of Theory, Calculation & Operation of Colorado Springs Tesla Transformer, 2019, EricPDollard

3. A & P Electronic Media, 2019, EMediaPress

4. A & P Electronic Media, AMInnovations by Adrian Marsh, 2019,  EMediaPress

5. Vril Science, Lahkovsky Multiwave Oscillator, 2019, Vril


 

Tesla’s Radiant Energy and Matter – Part 1

Some of the most fascinating areas of research into the inner workings of electricity, are those that display unusual and interesting phenomena, and especially those not easily understood and explained by mainstream science and electromagnetism. The field surrounding Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, the apparatus, experiments, and wealth of unusual electrical, and even non-electrical related phenomena, is a particular case to note. This first post in a sequence serves as a practical and experimental introduction to this area, along with consideration and discussion of the observed phenomena, and possible interpretations as to their origin and cause.

It is through working to understand these types of phenomena, often generated in high tension, unipolar, and non-linear electrical systems such as the Tesla coil and TMT transmission system, that the inner workings of electricity can be revealed little by little. That is to say, the outer workings of electromagnetism that account for almost all of those measurable electrical properties that constitute the transference of energy, and hence electric power, between source, load, and the intervening transmission medium, can be peeled back to show a more fundamental, coherent, and guiding mechanism.

This second inner level of electricity’s mechanism and working I consider to be based on the principle of displacement, a coherent and dynamic state extending throughout the common medium, and where the electric and magnetic fields of induction are defined but as yet undifferentiated in their nature. These two undifferentiated facets we can only suppose originate from a yet deeper and hitherto unexplored level of inner workings, where the pressure applied by the one and only force of intent leads to the manifested universe, and all that is both known and unknown.

The differentiation of the electric and magnetic fields of induction lead to the outer manifestation of electricity as we commonly know it, transference, and all the electromagnetic properties and scientific measurements that accompany it, including, for example, the speed of light c in the vacuum, which only currently has a fixed and defined value based on the level it is measured and perceived at. At this outer level of transference, c is measured as a specific value based directly on the inter-action (propagation) of the differentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction. I conjecture that at the next inner level where these fields of induction are defined but not differentiated, that c has not only different measurable quantities, but also comes with qualities and properties that make it a multi-faceted vibration, rather than the simple linear measure of a fixed value.

It should be clear to the reader that in my interpretation of this field of research I see it as not enough to construct experiments, observe phenomena, measure quantities, and then try to fit this to a linear and physical way of thinking about the world, as is the case in mainstream science, and often even in the alternative approaches. I consider progress in this field of research to be a co-operation or union between high-quality science, and a more philosophical or esoteric understanding of the principles and processes of life. Only through new practical knowledge gained through this inclusive approach to life will it be possible to fully reveal, perceive, and utilise the inner workings of progressively deeper levels of electricity.

Such are my conjectures about the inner workings of electricity even at only the next inner level, that as of yet is an unknown mystery to both mainstream science, and the alternative electricity researcher alike. It is for this reason that I find experiments surrounding Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and associated phenomena, so fascinating, exciting, and awe-inspiring, as they provide an opportunity to progressively take a look “under the hood” at the world of displacement, a hidden world yet to be discovered. A world much more vast in its import and effect than that which we currently observe, understand, and utilise.

In Tesla’s[1] original patent of 1901, No. 685957, he describes his understanding of radiant energy gained from experimentation and observation, and suitable apparatus for utilising this radiant energy:

“My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.”

“When rays or radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser, while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity, a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.”

It is clear from Tesla’s own description that he saw radiant energy as a ray or beam-like emanation, that is capable of transferring energy between the emanating source, and a suitably arranged receiver. Under these conditions an electric current could be established when the radiant energy is accumulated in a capacitor and connected to an electric load.

Tesla also states that a suitable time interval is required to allow the rays to generate an action upon the receiver. Tesla conjectures that radiant energy causes minute particle to be thrown of at great velocity, both making a link between radiant energy and matter, and implying that a force can be exerted not only electrically but also physically on a distant body.

In my own experiments into radiant energy I have observed similar phenomena to those described by Tesla including, charging of capacitors from longitudinal wavefronts generated in the single wire cavity of a TMT system, electrical and physical forces exerted on conductors, insulators, and biological specimens placed in proximity to a source of radiant energy emanations, and electric currents and discharges when load circuits are connected to a condenser charged by radiant energy.

The following video introduces the apparatus, experiments, and phenomena that are most often attributed to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and which have been successfully demonstrated in the prior art by researchers such as Dollard et al.[2]. The apparatus used in my video can be readily constructed by a competent electrical engineer,  showing that experimenting and researching this fascinating area is accessible to any open-minded individual with the fortitude to undertake an experimental path of discovery regarding the inner workings of electricity. The video demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:

1. The difference in powering a load with a conventional closed-circuit from the primary coil of a spark gap generator, and a single wire from the Tesla coil secondary.

2. The change in properties observed in the load in a single wire with load position, generator matching, and changes in the single wire cavity length.

3. The force exerted on different materials as a result of radiant energy/matter emanating from an incandescent lamp emitter in the single wire load.

4. The different responses of materials to radiant energy emanating from the lamp emitter.

5. The radiant matter pressure wave emanating from the lamp emitter, as experienced by the human hand.

6. Discharge “plasma-like” emanations directly from the lamp emitter to the surrounding medium.

7. Vibration and physical movement stimulated in the lamp filaments when radiant energy interacts with another object in the surrounding medium.

8. Cool lamp glass temperature when emanating considerable light from the lamp emitter, a so-called “cold” electricity phenomenon.

9. Radiant energy charging of a capacitor, accompanied by subsequent discharge in a neon lamp load, showing a “cool” white-bluish discharge, and a violent snapping sound.

10. An initial consideration of the inter-relationship between the longitudinal and transverse modes of electricity in the single wire load.

11. The transformation of energy from the longitudinal mode to the transverse, and the dissipation of this energy as power in the single wire load.

Figure 2 below shows the schematic for the generator and experimental apparatus used in the video. The high-resolution version can be viewed by clicking here.

Figure 3 below shows the secondary pulse burst at the single wire load measured using a 40kV high voltage probe whose input terminal is placed closed to the load via a short fly-lead. The fly-lead was initially connected directly to the load but caused some interference and erratic operation to the measurement equipment, as shown in the video. This erratic operation results from transient current spikes induced directly through the probe connections to internal circuitry, and cross-coupled amongst the various earth connections in the equipment line-supply. Individual ferrite chokes can be used on the measurement instrument line supply cables to prevent this undesirable cross-coupling. In this case the fly-lead of the probe was simply disconnected from the load but left in close proximity to the measurement region, which had no detectable impact on the measured results, but sufficiently reduced the unwanted interference to allow for correct instrument operation.

It can be seen from the secondary pulse burst that transients in the single wire during the initial spark discharge are large in amplitude, (up to 40kV in voltage magnitude, and 100s of amps in current magnitude), and resemble impulse-like spikes with very short life-times, densely packed in time, and with very short duty cycles. These transient impulses give rise to both sinusoidal oscillations in the resonant circuit of the secondary, and as expected for a Tesla coil or TMT apparatus, stimulate generation of the characteristic longitudinal wavefronts in the cavity of the secondary circuit. As considered in previous posts, the longitudinal wavefronts themselves could result from the coherent spatial inter-action between the electric and magnetic fields of induction in the LMD mode, and where the coherent aspect is the direct consequence of underlying displacement events.

It is conjectured, and explored here, that high-energy transient impulses, that are ideally unidirectional in nature, and characterised by very large amplitudes and very short life-times, stimulate through non-linear processes electrical events or an imbalance in the system that needs to be, and can only be, rebalanced by the underlying coherent process of displacement. The product of this momentary exposure to displacement, (or an inner-working of electricity), is emission of the rays or beam-like emanations Tesla referred to as radiant energy, which in-turn give rise directly to the unusual electrical phenomena observed in the experiment. It is to be conjectured that the observed radiant energy emanations are directly the consequence of a displacement event taking place in the non-linear dynamics of the local electrical system.

With this conjecture stated the various experimental observations shown in the video will now be considered with the objective of determining their possible source or cause, and in order to get a better qualitative understanding of the underlying principles and processes involved. It should be noted that real experimental results, observations, and perceptions are being conjectured here into a possible underlying explanation, which will need considerable further consideration and experimentation to test, verify, and draw reliable and robust conclusions as to the validity of the considered conjecture.

Transference of electric power in closed and open-circuit systems

The dissipation of power in an “open-circuit” or single wire load is a very characteristic phenomena which can be readily observed and measured in almost any Tesla coil geometry and configuration. A suitable resistive load such as an incandescent lamp can be made to illuminate brightly when connected by a single terminal to either end of the Tesla coil, and the other terminal of the lamp has a small wire extension or fly-lead added. Without this fly-lead the lamp is at the very termination of the single wire and it will not illuminate or dissipate power.

This single wire power dissipation can be observed irrespective of how the Tesla coil primary is energised, whether it be from a sinusoidal linear amplifier or oscillator, a burst discharge from a spark gap, or a pulse generator. In other words, provided the primary and secondary coils are arranged to couple sufficient energy between them it does not matter whether this energy is from a single frequency linear sinusoid, a burst discharge envelope, or a set of non-linear transients, pulses, or impulses, it is possible to dissipate this coupled power within a resistive load placed in the single wire extension of the secondary coil.

It can be seen in the video that the lamp load could not be made to illuminate when connected to output taps on the primary side of the Tesla coil, even on the “HI” Oudin extension terminal. The tension on these primary side terminals is high, about 1kV on the LO, 2-4kV on the MID, and up to almost 10kV on the HI terminal. There is also a wide range of frequencies in the pulse burst due to the spark discharge in the primary circuit, so the output of these primary terminals is certainly a high tension RF burst discharge. This RF burst looks very similar in envelope shape and structure to that measured in the secondary, with the major exception that the oscillation within the burst envelope is dominated by the primary circuit characteristics, whereas in the single wire it is dominated by the secondary coil circuit characteristics.

Given all of this the lamp load will not illuminate and dissipate power when connected by a single wire extension to the primary side terminals, and yet will readily illuminate when connected by a single wire extension to the secondary coil. The only way found to illuminate the load when connected to the primary side terminals is to complete the circuit by connecting the single-wire extension back to the primary ground terminal, making a normal closed-circuit system.

A very similar example to this would be powering an incandescent lamp when placed across the output terminals of an oscillator, or even better in the coaxial transmission line between the output of an amateur radio transmitter tuned to transmit say in the 160m HF band (~2 Mc), and a half-wave dipole antenna at the far end of the coax. When the coax is connected on both terminals (circuit-closed) the lamp will light and dissipate some of the power from the transmitter dependent on the impedance it presents within the circuit, with the remaining power being radiated from the antenna and consumed by the coax. When either terminal of the coax is removed (open-circuit) the lamp will not light and no power is dissipated in either the lamp, or delivered to the antenna.

This most simple, and yet profound difference, between powering a load from the primary and secondary circuits of a Tesla coil, where both coil outputs are high tension and contain considerable RF energy, suggests a fundamentally different mechanism of electrical transmission and/or dissipation of power in the two cases. In the primary the system behaves exactly as one would expect for a conventional electrical circuit, and can be measured and calculated precisely in the case where a linear sinusoid is applied to the circuit. If we reduce all electric circuit characteristics to the inter-dependent relationship of the electric (or dielectric) field of induction (Ψ), and the magnetic field of induction (Φ), and their inter-action with material type, form, and structure, then it should be clear that there is a fundamental difference in the relationship, or mode of inter-action, between these two induction fields within primary circuit and the secondary circuit.

In the closed-circuit case the configuration of Ψ and Φ lead to voltages and currents distributed in time around the circuit that are transverse in nature and where the phase relationship between them is distinctly defined by the impedance elements, (boundary conditions), distributed in the overall system. In this case or mode Ψ and Φ are fully differentiated, non-coherent, not in-phase either spatially or temporally, and only becoming temporally in-phase in the transverse electro-magnetic (TEM) mode for far-field propagation.

In the open-circuit or single wire case and to dissipate power in a load it is necessary for the configuration of Ψ and Φ which are still fully differentiated, to be coherent, that is in-phase spatially and temporally. This can be accomplished through the longitudinal mode, or the LMD  mode as it is known, where both Ψ and Φ are locked in phase alignment with each other, and form a combined traversing wavefront within the cavity, generating an electrical pressure wave ahead of the combined wavefront.

In this case local changes of impedance on the single wire, such as the filament of a lamp, lead to power dissipation at the pressure wave through local generation of instantaneous voltages and currents within the impedance change, and hence power dissipation, light, and heat. It can be seen that rms current decays in magnitude along the length of an open-circuit terminated single wire longitudinal cavity, rather than stay constant as would be expected for a transverse mode circuit. With the lamp as the termination of the single wire cavity it will not light as the local current in the wire end has reduced to zero, and no power can be dissipated in the load in the transverse mode.

In summary for now, the most basic Tesla coil presents a fundamentally different power transmission mode at the secondary coil, that is irrespective of how it is energised in the primary circuit, and is most likely longitudinal in nature, and results in the phenomena of single wire transmission of power.

Attractive and repulsive forces

The video shows a range of different materials mounted in a pendulum-like arrangement, that when brought in to close proximity to the single wire lamp load emitter, experience an attractive and in the case of certain materials, an additional repulsive force. The attraction of a material can be almost instantaneous on application of the emitter power, or in some cases can take a period of “charging” time to reach a sufficient level to pull the material towards the surface of the emitter. In most material cases the sample is retained on the surface of the lamp for a period of “discharging” time before being released from the surface after the emitter power is turned off. The responses of the different materials to radiant energy and matter emanations from the lamp are as follows:

Aluminium – attracted towards the emitter over a distance of up to 20mm with an electrical power level at the lamp of ~40W, (power present at the emitter lamp is estimated based on its relative brightness when illuminated at 100% of its nominal rating of 25W). 10mm at ~20W was demonstrated on the video, and this material is readily retained on the emitter surface after power off. No repulsion events were observed with this material.

Copper – both attracted and repulsed from the surface of the lamp at a distance of ~8mm at ~20W. This material is more gently attracted to the emitter but is more unlikely to be retained on the surface. The most observed phenomenon is that the copper in coming into contact with the lamp glass is then repulsed quite strongly from the surface rather than being retained on the surface. The repulsion has a defined force rather than a simple falling-away or bouncing off of the glass surface. The attraction and repulsion at the correct distance from the emitter leads to a sustaining mechanical oscillation of the pendulum.

Acetate (cellulose) – not attracted towards the emitter even at distances <1mm at up to 50W of emitter power. However at much high powers >100W with a different lamp, very small movements have been possible in the region of ~1mm from the lamp surface. Slow to attract over the distance, and very quick to release, implying very low pull force, and very low charging effect.

Biomatter (fresh and dried) – in this case both a fresh and dried leaf sample were strongly attracted to the lamp  over a distance up to 20mm at ~20W. This material gives the most instantaneous response to emitter turn-on with very rapid movement to the lamp surface. This material is also barely retained on the lamp glass after emitter turn-off, being almost as quickly released as it is attracted to the surface. No repulsion events were observed with this material.

Cardboard – in this case the cardboard is very old originating from the original inner box of a Weston 425 meter, and showed good attraction up to 5-10mm  at ~20W. This material is not retained on the lamp glass after emitter turn-off, and no repulsion events were observed with this material.

Clearly from this experiment it can be seen the emanations from the lamp emitter result in a physical force exerted on the material. This physical force is attractive for all of the materials, including the acetate, but varies very widely in scale based on the material type. Surprisingly the biomatter exhibits the strongest attraction, followed by the metals, all the way down to the insulator with only very small attraction at much higher powers. Only the copper shows a sustained repulsive force but only after an attractive event has first pulled the material to the surface of the glass of the lamp, almost as though an inversion occurs at the surface contact and the material is then repelled away. There is no situation where a material has been repelled away from the lamp at turn-on without first being attracted to the surface.

By studying the nature of the experiment it does at first appear like a “charging” effect. Emanations or wavefronts emitted from the lamp emitter cause negative charge accumulation at the surface of the material, where the degree of surface charging depends on the material type, its “impedance” to the emanations, and the material conductance. If this where the case it would be similar to an electrostatic force where two or more materials are attracted or repelled by the difference in their surface state charge.

It has been suggested[3] that the attractive force is magnetic in nature stemming from eddy currents generated in the material by the incident emanations. I have not so far been able to demonstrate this since the introduction of a strong bar magnet into the experiment makes no difference either attractive or repulsive to the material under test. The material still behaves as indicated above, and at the same power levels and distances, irrespective of the magnets influence on the experiment. However, this is not to say that the magnetic field of induction Φ is not involved in this process. This can also be partly supported by the observed sustained current through a neon lamp load in the capacitor charging part of the experiment, which could suggest that both Ψ and Φ are present within the nature of the radiant energy emanation.

At an empirical level this would appear to make sense, if the radiant energy is an emanation resulting from a displacement event at the emitter, and the displacement event involves the undifferentiated Ψ and Φ acting in temporal and spatial coherence, it would correspond that the emanation from this event is in phase, longitudinal in nature, and forms a forward moving unidirectional wavefront of “electrical pressure”. In this way this emanation conveying both Ψ and Φ when incident on materials within the transmission medium could stimulate an electric, magnetic, or a combination response from the material. This stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.

As a coherent pressure wave its transmission over distance may be very large, transferring energy from the pressure wave to incident materials in the surrounding medium, or even becoming self-sustaining with distance through amplification from suitably arranged material forms and apparatus. The velocity of the pressure wave needs to be considered and suitable apparatus for its measurement arranged, however in the coherent state as an emanation from a displacement event it is considered possible that energy is displaced between source and load at velocities exceeding c the transverse electromagnetic speed of light in the vacuum.

In summary, radiant energy like emanations very similar to Tesla’s original observation in his patent, can be observed from a suitable load, (impedance change), placed in the cavity of a single wire transmission medium. These emanations are conjectured to be the product of coherent underlying processes which stimulate a range of different responses from incident materials. The emanations are conjectured and discussed to be directly the product of displacement events generated by longitudinal electrical pressure imbalance at the single wire load.

Low temperature light emission and “cold” electricity

In Lindemann[4] the term “cold electricity” was used to describe experiments and observations by Gray (via Valentine)[5], based on light emitted by incandescent lamp loads, which was not accompanied by the normal rise in temperature expected from this type of resistive load, but rather the lamp had a cool glass surface when emitting “full power” illumination. Gray further demonstrated this by illuminating to full power an incandescent lamp submerged in cold water, which would ordinarily lead to fracture of the lamp glass. In the case of illumination by “cold electricity” no such fracture damaged was observed over sustained illumination periods.

In my experiment with incandescent lamps in the single wire load it was observed that the temperature of the lamp was quite low, and could comfortably be touched or held by the human hand after sustained illumination, equivalent to illumination at a full input power of 25W. This was compared to a control lamp, (same 25W pygmy make and style), powered from the normal line supply. After the same period of illumination where both lamps appeared the same brightness, the lamp in the single wire could be easily touched and held, whereas the control lamp was too hot to touch without causing a burn to the skin.

It appears likely from this experiment that the light being observed in the single wire lamp is, at least in part, emitted by a different process than the control lamp. Continuing the consideration from the previous section, and looking at the response of different materials to radiant energy emanations, it is possible to imagine that the filament of the bulb as a material that radiant energy is impinging upon, has its own unique and specific response to the coherent pressure wave emanation. In this case the response of the material to the radiant energy is to emit electromagnetic radiation in the form of light, which was not entirely generated by the resistive heating of the filament from the electrical current flowing in the single wire.

In a normal transverse and closed electric circuit case an incandescent lamp will generate light as emission from a resistive heated filament, where the colour temperature of the light is based on the filament material and temperature. Heat from radiation and conduction through the gas in the lamp heats the outer lamp glass to a temperature more than sufficient to cause sustained burns to biomatter. In the single wire lamp load light appears to be emitted through the filament response to the coherent longitudinal wavefront, which does not result entirely from resistive heating of the filament. Since the lamp does warm a little there is most likely a combination of processes going on, so some light emanation from radiant energy coherent processes, and some transverse current resistive heating in the filament.

This implies that there is a combination of the longitudinal and transverse electrical transmission modes within the single wire. It follows that improvement of the experimental system and boundary conditions could lead to a reduced transverse component, and a more pure longitudinal pressure wave in the single wire cavity reducing the heat emitted from the load to a level comparable to that observed by Gray in his experiments. In this case we would expect the temperature of the single wire lamp load to reduce from slightly warm to very cool, or even to cold in optimal experimental conditions and apparatus. Optimal conditions here means firstly reducing the transverse components within the single wire, which implies establishing the stable balance of Ψ and Φ boundary conditions in the complete system across the generator, primary, secondary, and cavity. And secondly it requires an increase to the uni-directional impulse like nature of the stimulus, where the increased non-linear inter-action between Ψ and Φ results in more displacement events and hence stronger emanations from the emitter.

In summary, it is considered that radiant energy emanations on the filament result in emission of light which is in part not as a result of resistive heating of the filament, which shows a similar result to that reported by Gray and considered by Lindemann. Improvements to the experimental apparatus and operating conditions should result in an increase in this phenomena, and will also help to confirm the validity of the conjectures made regarding displacement and radiant energy. It should be noted here that whilst I understand the label of “cold electricity” given to this phenomena, I find that the process conjectured here as being responsible for this phenomena is definitely not a “cold” principle. “Cold” in these terms implies the absence of something or something separated, in this case the energy to elevate the temperature through transverse dissipation, whereas I consider the emission of radiant energy, and the filament material response to that emission, to be an inclusive process which involves the coherent inter-action of both Ψ and Φ.  Thus phenomena and emanations resulting from displacement are inclusive in nature, involve all parts of the system and medium in dynamic balance, and imply a sense of warmth, wholeness, and completeness.

Radiant energy accumulation and charge storage

In this experiment a capacitor is electrically charged by radiant energy emanations, showing energy transferred from the single wire emitter, accumulated in the capacitor, and then discharged through a neon bulb in the form of a spark discharge. In many ways this a similar consideration to the section on attractive and repulsive force, only additional accumulation can occur due to the capacity and storage of energy on the capacitor, which persists for much longer time intervals after the radiant energy emitter has been turned off.

An interesting observation to note from this experiment is that during the “charging” of the capacitor a smaller single wire circuit, or tributary from the main cavity, is created in the form of the capacitor in close proximity to but not touching the lamp, a wire connected to the other terminal of the capacitor, and a neon lamp load connected to the end of this wire. The active region of the neon lamp appears in the cavity tributary where there is also a short lead out of the neon lamp acting as the short fly-lead at the end of the single wire cavity, and ensuring there is a small but non-zero single wire current in neon load. During the charging stage the neon bulb lights continuously showing a single current flow down the tributary, and the transient like nature of the accumulating tension on the capacitor.

When the capacitor is adequately charged the main single wire load emitter can be turned off, and the charged capacitor and tributary circuit removed from the vicinity of the main experiment. The charge of the capacitor is retained over considerable time without any part of the circuit being closed with the neon bulb. When the circuit is closed the stored energy discharges rapidly through the neon bulb, with a characteristic snapping sound, and a bright bluish white discharge light in the neon bulb. The nature of this spark discharge shows that there is considerable tension on the capacitor, in fact it can be measured using a high voltage probe to be up to ~10kV, and considerably more than the maximum rating of the capacitor, (in this case 4kV). Unusually the capacitor appears unaffected by application of this overall tension across its terminals, and can provide a rapid and high-current discharge through the neon bulb.

In summary, energy can be stored in a tributary single wire circuit incorporating a capacitor as an accumulator, when a radiant energy pressure wave is incident on one terminal of the capacitor. The experimental arrangement used with the load attached by single wire to the other terminal of the capacitor, and kept open-circuit during charging demonstrates the possibility of the formation of single wire tributary cavities, which extend off the main cavity. In some ways this is similar in analogy to the “fern” discharge effect demonstrated by Dollard[6], when exploring extra-coil discharge phenomena with a pair of cylindrical phase-locked TMTs.

Radiant matter pressure on biomatter and reaction forces

In this experiment I placed my fingers close to and around the single wire lamp emitter but not touching, and not close enough for a high tension discharge to occur between the filament and my fingers. It was clear to experience a vibrating pressure exerted on my fingers in similar accordance to Tesla’s observation that “… sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter …”, Tesla[1]. This radiant matter appeared to exert pressure on my fingers, or at least the experience of pressure waves as if being struck by waves of minute particles.

In addition to this I observed, and can be seen on the video, a reactionary force exerted on the filaments of the lamp emitter so that they would move permanently into another position, or else oscillated around a median position until filament breakage or becoming stuck to the inside surface of the lamp glass. Either way the movement of my fingers around the glass of the lamp resulted in both the experience of an exerted physical force on them, and simultaneously a reactionary force exerted on the filaments.

Although Tesla was clear about the nature of these “great velocity minute particles of matter”, I am not convinced of this explanation in this experiment, but rather that the experience is similar to that observed in the section on attractive and repulsive forces, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently inter-acting to form an emanation where again the stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.

Longitudinal and transverse mode coupling, or transformation, in a single wire cavity

This is a complex topic but one that needs to be initially considered here if we are to move toward a proper understanding as to the principles of transmission that take place in a single wire conductor, its relationship to the transverse and longitudinal mode, and ultimately the underlying stimuli and inner workings of electricity, displacement, and radiant energy.

In experiments and discussions thus far the Tesla coil or TMT system has been considered to form a cavity in the secondary circuit, where single wire transmission medium phenomena can be easily observed and measured. It has been suggested by others[2,3] and conjectured by myself that the single wire open-circuit nature of these phenomena, is a result of the longitudinal mode of transmission in the cavity created within the TMT system, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently locked in phase, creating an electrical pressure wavefront that traverses the cavity between boundaries, being reinforced by successive oscillations from the primary, and either transferring the power to a distant load in the primary of a receiver, or dissipating the energy in the wavefront within a load of different impedance within the single wire cavity.

The frequency of this longitudinal mode is expected to be different from the transverse resonant frequency of the Tesla coil secondaries for both the transmitter and receiver coil in a matched and tuned TMT transmission system. Whilst impedance measurements on a TMT with a vector network analyser, reveal in minute detail the transverse mode inter-action of the various resonant circuits making up the overall system, it appears to show nothing of the properties of the longitudinal mode which lay outside of its measurement paradigm. The concept of a longitudinal wavefront where both Ψ and Φ are temporally and spatially in phase does not currently exist in modern electromagnetism, and there is not an instrument currently available for probing this mode and condition.

Still the question stands of how it is possible to dissipate power in a single wire load in a longitudinal cavity. To start to address this we must consider the coupling between modes in the local impedance change of the load. Whilst the longitudinal mode of transmission dominates in the single wire cavity, energy and hence power can be transferred to distant loads, with in principle very low loss. To dissipate as power in the single wire load, rather than transfer the energy in the longitudinal mode, a coupling or transformation to the transverse mode must occur, generating local voltage potential difference and local currents in the load, which in turn are consumed as power in the resistive load, such as the filament of an incandescent lamp. I conjecture that it is this transformation process between modes that is characteristics of a single wire transmission medium, and allows for loads to be powered in an open-circuit condition, something that would not be possible in classical electric circuit theory or practice.

Radiant energy as emission from a displacement event

Further to this transformation between the longitudinal and transverse modes in the open-circuit single wire conduction model, it is conjectured and to be explored as a central concern in this research that as the TMT system becomes more non-linear, and when properly arranged to be stimulated with high-power impulse transients, displacement events required to rebalance the local Ψ and Φ dynamics of the system give rise to radiant energy emanations. These emanations result in many of the observed phenomena presented in this post, and when properly arranged in timing, amplitude, and duration lead to a very wide range of perceptual phenomena that are both electrical and non-electrical in nature, and yet to be explored.

So it is maintained and to be explored that the ideal TMT system is one that is carefully balanced, matched, and tuned between the “transmitter” and “receiver” coils both for the longitudinal and transverse modes, such that the single wire transmission medium forms a low impedance, reciprocal, and high Q cavity, where Ψ and Φ are dynamically balanced and in equilibrium for the linear case. This ideal TMT system when subsequently powered by a highly non-linear, uni-directional, transient impulse generator of very high tension, will cause such large discontinuities in the local balance of Ψ and Φ that displacement, as an underlying guiding mechanism in the inner workings of electricity, will be called-forth to re-balance the local dynamics of the electrical system.

These displacement events generate emanations, or electrically based shock waves, that are themselves longitudinal in nature, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently locked in phase, creating an electrical pressure wavefront that emanates outwards from the primary event. the stimulated response of materials and forms which encounter the incident wavefronts may involve energy accumulation and storage, but also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical forces, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.

The creation of such an experimental system to test these assertions on displacement and transference, transformation of the longitudinal and transverse modes, and transmission of electric power to distant loads with very low loss, represents a challenge equivalent to surmounting a mountain higher than the highest yet ascended.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far

In this post we have experimentally observed a wide range of phenomena that are usually attributed to those related to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and which have also been demonstrated and observed by other significant research efforts, including Dollard et al.[2]. It is clear from the experiments and observations that improvements to the TMT experimental system will facilitate a far more detailed and clear exploration of the underlying principles involved.

In considering the unusual observations of the experiment, and the accumulated understanding of the prior art through both my own collective work presented so far, and that of significant others[1-8], I have formulated a line of conjecture which combines both a philosophical and scientific approach towards the origin or source of these phenomena, and how that source could give rise, through fundamental principles and processes, to the materially observed effects of said experiments.

The formulated line of conjecture has the following key points:

1. The underlying origin or source of these phenomena resides in the inner workings of nature that, at the deepest conceivable level, is the result of the pressure of life’s intent, which in turn gives rise to the need for the natural and living world to evolve.

2.  The inner workings of electricity, as a part of the inner natural world, includes the undifferentiated fields of electric and magnetic induction Ψ and Φ, which act as one together in a fully inclusive manner, and which I refer to as displacement Q. Dollard[8] refers to a similar principle Q as the Plank, or total electrification, which for me reflects the same inner workings of electricity.

3. A displacement event is not normally observable in the differentiated dynamics of Ψ and Φ. This differentiation between Ψ and Φ, and all the implications of their temporal and spatial inter-action results in what science currently understands as the field of electromagnetism, and gives rise to all the phenomena that I refer to as transference.

4. A severe imbalance created between Ψ and Φ in a circuit system where the “need” or purpose of the circuit is clearly stated, and where equilibrium cannot be re-established through the process of transference, will call-forth the underlying guiding principle of displacement. The act of displacement coherently puts the differentiated Ψ and Φ into their proper temporal and spatial alignment, upon where transference can resume as the external and observable dynamics of electricity.

5. The result of a displacement event is to generate an emanation or shock-wave, which Tesla called radiant energy, that permeates the medium surrounding the displacement event, and extending out until all emanation energy is stored or dissipated by external transference of electric power.

6. The radiant energy emanation is a direct consequence and extension of the displacement principle, and equivalent to bursts of energy or electrification injected into the surrounding medium. Suitable collection or reception of this emanation, when introduced to a load suitable to balance the overall system, will make it possible to harvest this additional electrical energy for suitable means, provided the overall balance of the complete system and medium is not violated. This is similar to what Tesla[7] referred to “… it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature”.

7. The radiant energy emanation where both Ψ and Φ are coherently inter-acting leads to stimulated responses from material and forms in the surrounding medium, where the stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.

8. The extension of radiant energy into the surrounding medium, and when incident on another open single wire circuit with established purpose, will constitute a tributary event, and transferring the same electrical event properties to the tributary, where the quantity of transferred energy is equivalent to the load or need of the tributary circuit.

9. The overall balance and natural order of the electrical system will be maintained through the inner workings of electricity and the principle of displacement, and can be observed and experimented with. Ultimately the energy generated through displacement can be utilised where the natural order and balance is preserved by the utilisation. This is equivalent to where the load represents a need that is inclusive to the system, then the system becomes regenerative, and can self-sustain with energy being supplied to all loads in balance.

This post has opened and exposed many further questions surrounding all of the observed phenomena, the need for much more measurement detail, further design of a more optimal experimental system, and most importantly the verification, or otherwise, of each and every one of the conjectures made to explain and understand what might be the source and mechanism behind Tesla’s radiant energy and matter.

In the next post in this series I will be take a look at improvements to the TMT experimental apparatus that may lead to more detailed and clearly defined measurements to support aspects of the formulated line of conjecture.


1. Tesla, N., Apparatus for the utilization of radiant energy, US Patent US685957, Nov. 5, 1901.

2. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.

3. Dollard, E. and Energetic Forum Members, Energetic Forum, 2008 onwards.

4. Lindemann, P., The free energy secrets of cold electricity, Clear Tech, Inc., 1st Ed, 2001.

5. Valentine, T., Man creates engine that consumes no fuel, The National Tattler, July 1, 1973.

6. Dollard, E., Etheric discharge from Eric Dollard’s tesla magnifying transmitter, Integratron, Summer 1986.

7. Tesla, N., Experiments with alternate currents of high potential and high frequency, Address to the Institution of Electrical Engineers, London, Feb. 1892.

8. Dollard, E., A common language for electrical engineering – lone pine writings, A&P Electronic Media, 2013.