Transference of Electric Power – Part 1

In this first part we will look at both video experiments and measurements to investigate and demonstrate the transference of electric power via the transmission medium of a single wire, and combined with and without multiple loads. The experiments are undertaken using the flat coils designed, measured, and tested in detail here. Part 1 of this topic is intended to experimentally introduce the transference of electric power, and the various properties, phenomena, and effects that can be measured within such an electrical system when excited using the vacuum tube generator as a feedback oscillator, details here.

A more detailed introduction to the principles of transference of electric power can be found here. The experimental work in this part is intended to investigate and demonstrate aspects of the following:

1. Tuning measurements using a vector network analyser to measure Z11, the small signal ac input impedance for the experimental system, from the perspective of the generator.

2. Tuning the transmitter and receiver to different points to demonstrate different transference phenomena.

3. Single wire transmission and the longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) mode.

4. Tuning to power a load within the single wire transmission line.

5. Tuning to power a load at the output of the receiver.

6. Tuning to establish the LMD mode of transmission between the transmitter and the receiver.

7. Tuning to establish the null point of the LMD mode within the single wire load.

8. Tesla’s wireless transmission of electric power in the near field, using a pair of tuned Tesla magnifying transformers (TMT).

9. Transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver in the near field.

Figures 1 below show an overview of the experimental arrangement which consists of two flat coils used as transmitter and receiver and joined via the base of the secondary coils by a single wire transmission line with an inline 100W four incandescent lamp load, (4 x 25W 240V pygmy lamps). The transmitter primary is connected to the 811A vacuum tube generator via a matching unit which in this case consists of only a 1200pF vacuum variable capacitor in parallel with the 2 turn copper strap primary. The receiver primary is tuned by another parallel connected 1000pF vacuum variable capacitor which in turn is connected to another 100W four incandescent lamp load. The outer end terminal of the receiver primary is connected directly to RF ground via a low inductance ground strap. The secondary coils of the transmitter and receiver are positioned facing each other on axis 1.5m apart, and are counter-wound to each other in order to produce a balanced and reciprocal cavity arrangement.

The 811A vacuum tube generator is used in this experiment as a tuned plate class-C Armstrong oscillator which derives automatic feedback from a pick-up coil placed close to the secondary coil of the transmitter, and can be clearly seen on the back of the transmitter in figures 1.4-1.6. The advantage of using a self-tuned oscillator as the generator for this experiment is that complete tuning of the system can be easily accomplished simply by adjusting CPT, the primary capacitance of the transmitter, (and for fine tuning CPR the primary capacitance of the receiver). As CPT is adjusted over its range the generator tracks the tuning changes in the overall system allowing very precise and optimum frequency tracking through the various resonant bands of the system.

The dis-advantage of self-tuning the generator in this way, is in the regions where there is very little coupling between the primary and secondary of the transmitter coil, (far from the resonant regions), there is insufficient feedback to the vacuum tubes and oscillation can be unstable or non-existent. To explore these low coupling regions a fixed frequency excited linear amplifier would be the preferred choice, which will be covered in another part. For this part in exploring the transference of electric power via transmission between a transmitter and receiver coil via a single wire transmission line, we are most interested in the resonant regions of the system where the self-tuned oscillator allows for convenient and accurate tracking within these bands.

The first video introduces the experimental setup, instrumentation, and readings, and then looks in detail at the Z11 small signal impedance characteristics for a range of different tuning conditions for both the transmitter and receiver coils, combined with a single wire transmission medium, and both with and without multiple incandescent lamp loads.

Figures 2 below show the detailed Z11 impedance measurements that were presented in the first video, and will be referred to in the consideration of the experimental results after the second video.

The second video demonstrates interesting phenomena and effects relating to the transference of electric power from the vacuum tube generator to the transmitter, and then via the single wire transmission medium through to the receiver coil, and to finally the load at the output of the receiver. Various different modes of transmission are considered which are established by different tuning points of the experiment.

There have been a range of different interpretations as to the nature of wireless transmission of power from a resonant transmitter to a resonant receiver, through the surrounding medium, proposed as early as the late nineteen century by Maxwell[1], Tesla[2,3], Steinmetz[4] and much later by others such as Dollard et al.[5,6,7], Tucker et al. [8], and Leyh et al.[9]. Different sources have suggested different mechanisms for the transfer of power between transmitter and receiver, including the Longitudinal Magento-Dielectric mode, Multiple order magnetic field coupling, and Electric field coupling.

In my research into the transference of electric power so far, I have found most validity in both conceptual and experimental terms from wireless transmission at distances greater than that which can be attributed through near-field induction, (the conventional transformer effect), through the principle of the Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric (LMD) mode. In my consideration of the results of the experiments presented in this post, I find the LMD principle to most closely account for the observed phenomena and properties surrounding the transfer of electric power through a near-field TMT arrangement.

I consider the experiments presented in this post to be transmission in the near-field, rather than what might ordinarily be considered by conventional antenna theory the mid-range, where the distance between the transmitter and receiver is more than 2-3 times the diameter of the coils, (antenna aperture). In this case the central tuned resonance of the TMT system  is ~2Mc/s, which corresponds to a free-space wavelength of ~150m. Since the coils are connected by a single wire transmission line, and are spaced 1.5m apart, I very much consider this scenario to be near-field transmission since the receiver coil is very much less than a wavelength from the source.

The transfer of electric power in this scenario is as a result of the specific modes formed by the electric and magnetic fields of induction, and hence the transfer of power is “inducted” or “extended”, rather than propagated as would be the case for a transmitting antenna. In subsequent posts I will be presenting experiments on the telluric transfer of electric power where the wireless transmission distances are in the far-field, and are very much greater than the wavelength of the fundamental resonant frequency of the TMT system. Despite the near-field arrangement the transfer of electric power in this system is not via the conventional magnetic coupling of the “transformer effect”.

This was confirmed by removing the single wire transmission and simply terminating both bottom-ends of the secondary coils with a short wire extension, in order to lower the impedance at this end and ensure λ/4  resonation. In this condition, and when tuned over the full available frequency range, no transmission of power took place between the transmitter and receiver coils, even when both were tuned to the same resonant frequency at either the upper or lower frequency. If the conventional transformer effect occurred in the near-field then some detectable power would have been transferred between the generator and receiver load. This clearly shows that transference of electric power in this TMT experimental arrangement requires the transmission of the electric and magnetic fields of induction via a lower impedance path through the transmission medium, (in this case the single wire connection). When both of the short secondary extension wires were then subsequently connected to earth, (either independent dedicated rf grounds, or earth points from the utility supply), power was again transferred between the source and load at the correct tuning.

It is conjectured here that transference of electric power, at the correct point of tuning in this experiment, occurs through establishing the LMD mode of transmission as a standing wave between the transmitter and receiver coils, where a cavity is formed between the top-loads of the two secondary coils. In successive cycles of the generator oscillations electrical energy is coupled from the generator into the cavity. The pressure of the wavefront in the longitudinal mode moves backwards and forwards as it traverses the cavity from the transmitter to the receiver, reflected from the top load of the receiver and back again towards the transmitter where it is amplified or suppressed by coupling from subsequent cycles from the generator. Whether the longitudinal wavefront is amplified or suppressed depends on the tuning of the experiment and hence the longitudinal wavelength in the cavity.

At the correct point of  tuning the amplitude of the wavefront is reinforced by successive cycles from the generator. The magnitude of this longitudinal wavefront reaches an equilibrium in the cavity based on the impedance characteristics of the cavity medium, its tuning, and dissipation of the stored power to both the transmission medium, and to the surrounding environment. The longitudinal wavelength within the medium is longer than that of the generator excitations, which represents a lower frequency of oscillation for the longitudinal mode. This puts the electric and magnetic fields of induction at different phase relationships throughout the length of the cavity, a property of the longitudinal mode that can measured in the cavity region, and is presented in the consideration of the experimental results below.

At the correct point of tuning the di-electric and magnetic fields of induction in the LMD mode form a standing wave in the cavity which results from the longitudinal wavelength, where the boundaries of the cavity are defined by the high impedance, high potential, points at the top-loads of the coils, and one or more null points form inside the cavity. At the fundamental frequency of the LMD mode, (not the same frequency as the fundamental resonance of the secondary coils or the generator oscillations), only a single null will exist in the centre of the cavity, and when the coils are closely spaced in the near-field. At higher order harmonics, and dependent on spacing between the coils multiple null points can form.

Each of the key experimental parts is now considered in more detail, and where appropriate based on the conjecture made above regarding the LMD mode of transmission:

Single wire transmission and the LMD mode

A key feature of the presented experiments in the transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver is that power is transferred via a single wire which in itself is an unsusual method of transfer within standard electric circuit theory and experiment.

In a standard closed electric circuit current is continuous throughout the circuit with the voltage potential around the circuit dependent on the impedance of the elements and/or transmission lines that make up the circuit topology. The underlying premise is that a circuit has a forward and return path where the impedance is sufficiently low to allow for a “flow” of current from the source around the circuit, and returning to the source. Power is dissipated in the various impedances that make up the circuit according to their characteristics and the voltage and current phase relationship of the overall impedance of the circuit.

Ordinarily introducing a very high impedance, (in principle an infinite open-circuit), will reduce the current in the circuit to such a low-level, and in principle to zero, so that no current can flow around the circuit from and returning to the source, and hence no power is dissipated in that circuit. Even in an rf transmission line the normal transverse mode of transmission assumes a voltage and current distribution long the transmission line based on its distributed impedance, and its matching to the source and load terminations, where the transmission line is based on a closed circuit formed between the source and load in two or more conductive mediums between the source and load.

As can be seen in the videos the four incandescent load can be fully lit where no obvious closed circuit exists. The load is not connected between the outputs of the secondary (topload and base of the secondary), but is rather only connected via the base of a secondary. The other side of the load is left as open-circuit with a short trailing wire. Once again a cavity is formed between the top-load of the transmitter secondary and the open-circuit of the trailing wire, which would enable the LMD mode to establish. The electric and magnetic fields of induction are both present around the boundaries of the single wire, and a longitudinal wavefront is established at the longitudinal frequency in the cavity. At the upper and lower resonant frequency of the secondary energy is coupled from the generator into the cavity, and the longitudinal mode is established along the length of the cavity.

A higher impedance load placed within the electrical cavity at resonance will dissipate power in a transverse mode from the established wavefront when the electric and magnetic fields of induction local to the load are in phase. That is, the induced voltage across the load, and the induced current in the load, are predominantly in phase in the region of the load. In this case energy can then be transferred (induced) from the longitudinal wavefront to the transverse mode, and power will be dissipated in the lamp as both light and heat with a warm yellow colour temperature, as can be seen in the video. Placing the load right at the end of the wire will not light the incandescent lamp at the termination of the cavity, where the voltage and currents induced in the wire are 90° out of phase at the open-circuit termination.

Figures 3 below shows the phase relationship between the voltage and current oscillations of the generator in the primary, and the phase relationship between the voltage and the current at three different points in the single wire section of the cavity. It is conjectured that the changing phase relationship between the induced voltage and currents along the single wire is characteristic of the longitudinal mode established in the cavity, and results in unusual electrical phenomena and characteristics that are measured in TMT experimental systems.

In each figure the traces are as follows:,

Yellow – The voltage across the transmitter primary.

Green – The current through the transmitter primary, calibrated 1A/div.

Cyan – The voltage measured at centre of the single wire transmission line.

Red – The current measured through the single wire transmission line, calibrated 1A/div.

Each frequency 1.75, 1.94, and 3.32 Mc/s are measured at three different points in the single wire section of the cavity:

SWC1 – At the bottom-end of the transmitter secondary.

SWC2 – In the middle of the single wire.

SWC3 – At the bottom-end of the receiver secondary.

It is important to note from these measurements the varying change in phase relationship between the voltage and current at the transmitter, centre, and receiver ends of the single wire, (cyan and red trace), for tuned power in the receiver load, figures 3.4, 3.5, and 3.6. It is conjectured that this varying phase change across the single wire length between the voltage and the current, (~1.94Mc/s), which is hardly present when not correctly tuned for the transference of electric power (~1.75Mc/s and 3.32Mc/s), is indicative of a standing wave resonance of the LMD mode in the cavity, a cavity which has been formed by two coils that are matched at resonance in the TEM mode, and joined by a transmission medium. It is the combination of matched resonance in the TEM mode at the coils, and a tuned standing wave of the LMD mode that leads to the transference of electric power with very low loss between the generator and the final receiver load.

Tuning to power a load within the single wire transmission line

This experimental point is shown in figures 1.1 and figures 2.4, 2.7-2.9. Interestingly this condition is little different to the open-circuit terminated single wire case discussed above. However, now both transmitter and receiver are connected together via the single wire transmission line which also contains an incandescent lamp load. The single wire lamps could be tuned to light fully at either the lower or upper resonant frequencies of the combined secondary coils, with no or very little power dissipated in the final load at the receiver primary.

Once again a cavity is formed between the two top-loads of the transmitter and receiver secondaries, and through the single wire transmission line, the LMD mode is present, and there is a varying phase relationship between the voltage and current measured in the single wire. The  mis-match in tuning between the transmitter and receiver means that, whilst the LMD mode is always present, it is not tuned to form a standing wave in the cavity. There are no detectable null points along the single wire and the neon lamp at the top-load of the receiver is not lit, showing that there is no high-potential at the top-end of the receiver coil. In this case the TMT transmission system is not tuned between the transmitter and receiver and so no power is being coupled through the receiver coil to its load. The system appears almost identical to the open-circuit single wire case above.

Energy is being coupled at the secondary resonant frequency from the generator into the transmitter secondary in the transverse mode, and the mis-match in tuning between the high-Q transmitter and receiver means that energy is not reaching the receiver coil but rather being consumed in the load in the single wire. This is further demonstrated in the video when the receiver secondary is unplugged from the single wire the lamps of the load in the single wire stay lit, they do change intensity slightly as the tuning changes, but can be returned back to full brightness by slight adjustment at the transmitter primary capacitor.

In summary, the transference of electric power from the generator to the single wire load occurs at the lower or upper resonant frequency of the transmitter coil, and is largely independent of the mis-matched termination at the other end of the single wire, whether that be a simple open-circuit, or short-circuit to ground, or another mis-matched resonant circuit such as a TMT receiver.

Tuning to power a load at the output of the receiver

This experimental point is shown in figures 1.2 and figures 2.5, and 2.6.  With careful tuning there is a very narrow band, as seen on the video, where the high-Q TMT transmitter and receiver are tuned very accurately to one another, and power can be transferred directly between the transmitter and receiver via the single wire transmission, and with very little power dissipated in the single wire or its load. In this experimental setup the tuned frequency at the generator is between ~1.92 – 2.05 Mc/s to demonstrate the transference of electric power between generator and final load.

In this scenario the LMD mode is tuned in the cavity to form a standing wave, a null point is present at the centre of the path length of the cavity, which in this experiment where the single wire load was placed. Both top-loads are at maximum potential indicating that the cavity is in the fundamental resonant frequency of the LMD mode, that is nλLMD/2,  where n=1 and there is a high potential point at the transmitter top-load, a zero potential null point in the single wire, (at the single wire load), and a high potential point at the receiver top-load.

Overall this is now the special condition where firstly, the transverse electromagnetic mode (TEM) is matched independently for both the transmitter and receiver coils, so they are both able to couple maximum energy, the transmitter from the generator, and the receiver to its load, at the same resonant frequency. This is secondly combined with the LMD mode formed in the secondary coil of the transmitter TMT, and tuned within the cavity of the single wire transmission medium to form a standing wave, where in its fundamental mode a single null point exists in the centre of the single wire transmission medium. The combination of the TEM and LMD modes both correctly tuned, leads to an inter-dependent balanced condition within the electrical system, where transference of electric power between the generator and load can occur with minimal loss.

In principle, transmission in this mode could cover great distances where an LMD standing wave is established in a transmission cavity where there are many null points along the single medium of the conductor, whether that be a wire, the earth, or other lower impedance or resonant medium. Again in principle with the correct setup of the TEM and LMD modes in the complete system very little power need be lost in the transmission medium, which can be tuned correctly by detecting the null points in the medium, and the varying phase relationship of the measured voltages and currents in the medium, which appears at this stage to be an indication of the LMD mode.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far:

1. In consideration of the experimental results presented and phenomena observed, it is conjectured that the LMD mode is established in a resonating coil when a cavity is formed between the top-load of the coil, in this case an open-circuit with a neon indicator bulb, and the outer boundary point of the circuit connected to the bottom-end of the coil. The LMD mode enables transmission of the electric and magnetic fields of induction together around the boundary of the single transmission medium, in this case around the outside of the single wire. The magnetic and di-electric fields of the LMD mode are in the same plane of travel and hence constitute a longitudinal pressure wavefront that traverses the cavity reflecting from the high impedance boundaries at each end and establishing an LMD wave with wavelength distinct from the transverse resonant wavelength of the transmitter and receiver secondary coils.

2. When the LMD mode is not established as a standing wave within the cavity of the single transmission medium the energy coupled from the generator into the transmitter coil by transverse induction is consumed by a higher impedance load in the single transmission medium, or with inadequate load in the transmission medium will be discharged to the surrounding environment through streamers at the high potential top-load.

3. When an LMD standing wave is established in the cavity, and the high-Q transmitter and receiver coils are both resonating in equilibrium with each other in the very narrow matched band (~1.92Mc/s – 2.05Mc/s) power is transferred directly from the generator to the final load at the receiver, with very little energy consumed in the single transmission medium

4. An LMD standing wave can be established in a cavity that is geometrically and electrically reciprocal at each end, e.g. with an identical TMT transmitter and receiver designed to resonate at the same transverse frequency, which causes the longitudinal pressure wave to be reflected from each end of the cavity.

5. Where the wavelength of the LMD mode is a whole number of half-wavelengths nλLMD/2, amplification of the LMD mode will occur in the transmitter until a dynamic equilibrium is established within the electrical system and with the surrounding medium. In this case the null point/s of the standing wave can be measured in the single transmission medium, and tuned carefully either side of this point will show the null point to move towards either end of the single transmission medium, before collapse of the standing wave at the coil boundaries.

6. The LMD standing wave mode could be indicated by a varying phase change between the voltage and current waveforms measured along the length of the transmission medium. It is conjectured that this phase change is preliminary evidence of the amplified longitudinal mode established in the cavity.

7. The combination of the TEM and LMD modes both correctly tuned, leads to an inter-dependent balanced condition within the electrical system, where transference of electric power between the generator and load can occur with minimal loss.

The preliminary results for the transference of electric power in the near-field indicate that considerable more study is required on the various transmission modes present in the TMT system, and particularly a more detailed measurement and study of the phase relationships of the electric and magnetic fields of induction in the transmission medium, and the difference in the resonant wavelengths of the transverse and the longitudinal modes. These two modes appear to interact constructively and in an inter-dependent way when tuned for the optimal transference of electric power between the generator and the receiver load.

Click here to continue to part 2 on the transference of electric power, where the experiment is powered by a spark gap generator, and the differences explored and contrasted to the results obtained here with a single frequency feedback oscillator.


1. Maxwell, J., A Dynamical Theory of the Electromagnetic Field, Phil. Trans. Royal Society, pg459-pg512, January 1865.

2. Tesla, N., System of transmission of electrical energy, US Patent US645576A, March 20, 1900.

3. Tesla, N., Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum Beograd, 1978.

4. Steinmetz, C., Elementary Lectures on Electric Discharges, Waves and Impulses, and Other Transients, McGraw-Hill Publication, 1911.

5. Dollard, E., Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers, Borderland Sciences Publication, 1986.

6. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.

7. Dollard, E. and Energetic Forum Members, Energetic Forum, 2008 onwards.

8. Tucker, C. & Warwick, K. & Holderbaum, W., A Contribution to the Wireless Transmission of Power, Electrical Power and Energy Systems 47 p235-242, 2013.

9. Leyh, G. & Kennan, M., Efficient Wireless Transmission of Power Using Resonators with Coupled Electric Fields, Nevada Lightning Laboratory, 40th North American Power Symposium, 2008.


 

Transference of Electric Power – Part 2

In this second part on the transference of electric power we take a look at the differences that arise when a spark gap generator (SGG) is used as the power source for the experiment rather than a single frequency oscillator as used in part 1. It is recommended to study  part 1 before this second part, in order to gain an underlying understanding of the overall experiment, phenomena, results, and suggested interpretation of the experimental results, that are characteristic to the practical investigations in the transference of electric power.

Unlike a single frequency oscillator or linear amplifier generator, a spark gap generator produces a very broad range of frequencies which result from the abrupt and impulse-like discharge that occurs at the spark gap. Frequencies generated by such a spark gap discharge, range from the very low in the 10s of Hz, all the way up to 100s of MHz, and beyond into GHz frequencies. With such a wide frequency band the stored energy available in the tank capacitors, which are charged at each half-cycle of the HV supply, is distributed across this wide band leading to two significant factors. Firstly that considerably less energy is available from the source at the resonant frequency of the transmitter coil, and secondly, tuning of the TMT transmission system has considerably less effect on the transference of electric power between the generator source and the receiver load.

The experimental work in this part is intended to investigate and demonstrate aspects of the following:

1. Tuning measurements using a vector network analyser to measure Z11, the small signal ac input impedance for the experimental system, from the perspective of the spark gap generator.

2. Tuning indifference when powering a load either in the single wire transmission line or at the output of the receiver.

3. Reduced power available in the single wire transmission line.

4. Reduced power available in the receiver load.

5. Tesla radiant energy and matter phenomena.

6. Transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver in the near field.

Figures 1 below show an overview of the experimental arrangement which consists of two flat coils used as transmitter and receiver and joined via the base of the secondary coils by a single wire transmission line with an inline 60W four incandescent lamp load, (4 x 15W 240V pygmy lamps). The transmitter primary is connected to the Spark Gap Generator via a matching unit which consists of two compound series tank capacitors, shunted 4 x 1B22 hydrogen-argon spark gap modulator tubes, and a 1200pF vacuum variable capacitor in parallel with the 2 turn copper strap primary.

The receiver primary is tuned by another parallel connected 1000pF vacuum variable capacitor which in turn is connected to a 50W two incandescent lamp load. The outer end terminal of the receiver primary is connected directly to RF ground via a low inductance ground strap. As in part 1 the secondary coils of the transmitter and receiver are positioned facing each other on axis 1.5m apart, and are counter-wound to each other in order to produce a balanced and reciprocal cavity arrangement.

Figure 2 below show the schematic for the transference of electric power experiment powered by the SGG. The high-resolution version can be viewed by clicking here.

The principle of operation and matching requirements are somewhat different between the vacuum tube generator (VTG) and the SGG. In the VTG maximum power transfer between the generator and primary is accomplished when the impedance of the primary resonant circuit is equal to the  combined vacuum tube internal impedance, when oscillating at the designed and configured operating point, (class C amplifier), for the tuned primary frequency, and run in CW (continuous wave) mode. In this case the primary circuit is not arranged to resonate at the same frequency as the secondary, where oscillating primary currents would be far too large and lead to destruction of the vacuum tubes. Rather the correct impedance match between the primary and tube oscillator facilitates maximum transfer of power from the non-resonant tube tank circuit to the tuned primary circuit, whilst keeping vacuum tube power dissipation under the maximum combined rating for the tubes.

In the SGG case it is in principle optimal to arrange the resonant frequencies of the primary tank circuit, and the secondary coil to be the same. In this case bursts of very large and maximal oscillating currents are generated in the primary tank circuit, which in turn result in strong magnetic coupling to the secondary circuit, and hence maximum power transfer between the resonant primary tank, and the secondary resonant coil. In practice matched primary tank and secondary coil resonant frequencies cause considerable operating issues when running, as the very high oscillating currents, in the high-Q low impedance primary, result in a very aggressive, unstable, and erratic spark discharge. The de-tuning of the circuit, by deliberate mis-match of the primary tank circuit resonant frequency and the secondary resonant frequency, reduces the Q considerably of the primary, reduces slightly the coupling between the primary and the secondary, whilst considerably stabilising the spark gap discharge to be suitable for experiments in the transference of electric power through a high-Q TMT transmission system.

In the case where a Tesla coil is being used for maximum streamer discharge, it is accepted as best practice to match the primary tank resonant frequency as close as possible to the secondary coil resonant frequency. Here maximum energy is coupled into the secondary and dissipated through the top-load accumulator. In this case the primary frequency is usually de-tuned slightly below the secondary frequency to maximise power transfer during streamer discharge, which leads to very white-hot powerful discharges. For example for a coil arranged to resonate with suitable top-load at 1.7Mc/s the primary resonant tank circuit would be tuned to resonate between ~ 1.5-1.6Mc/s, (~10% lower to compensate for secondary frequency drop on discharge). This case requires a very powerful and robust spark gap that will operate very aggressively, unstably, and producing large amounts of heat, light and noise.

In the case for a TMT transmission system using two or more Tesla coils matched and tuned together in a high-Q narrow bandwidth arrangement, and connected with a single wire and operated in a balanced LMD transmission mode, the primary resonant tank frequency is optimally arranged to be lower in frequency than the secondary resonant coil frequency. In this case there is only a small measured difference in total power being transferred from the generator to the final receiver load as a result of the deliberate primary resonant tank and secondary coil resonant frequency mis-match. For example for a coil arranged to free resonate into a single wire transmission line at 1.7Mc/s the primary resonant tank circuit would be tuned to resonate between ~ 1.0-1.3Mc/s.

The 1B22 hydrogen-argon spark gap tubes were shunted out of the circuit for experiments in the transference of electric power to the receiver load, as their higher internal resistance reduces the primary currents, causing a reduction in the total transmitted power. The shunts are made from copper sheet which remove the tubes from the circuit without increasing the inductance of the primary tank circuit.  In experiments relating to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter it is possible to obtain improved results, (amplified phenomena), when the 1B22 tubes are included in the circuit. It is conjectured that the slight dioding action[1,2] as a result of the ionizing radioactive (Radium Ra-226) trigger element, and the improved pulse response of the primary tank circuit, improves the uni-directional energy supply from the tank circuit to the TMT system. This improved uni-directional energy supply increases the intensity of the LMD mode wavefront in the single wire cavity, amplifying radiant energy and matter phenomena.

A correctly triggered and functioning 1B22 will emit a dark purple spark discharge within the aluminium can of the cathode terminal, which is quickly quenched by the rarefied hydrogen-argon gas mix. A defective 1B22 with a leak to air will still work as a spark gap but will generate a brighter green-yellow discharge as aluminium is combusted from the cathode surface. The discharge sustains for longer causing considerable burning of the electrodes, and rapid over-heating causes distortion of the glass tube, with finally destruction of the electrodes.

The following video introduces the experimental setup, instrumentation, and readings, and looks in detail at Z11 the small signal impedance characteristics of the experiment from the perspective of the spark gap generator. It concludes with a range of experiments in the transference of electric power using a spark gap generator, combined with a preliminary introduction to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter experiments.

Figures 3 below show the detailed Z11 impedance measurements that were presented in the video, and will be referred to in the consideration of the experimental results.

Figures 4 below show the oscillating voltages and currents in the primary transmitter tank circuit, and also those measured at the single wire load. In both the green and red traces the current amplifier is calibrated at 50A/div, showing the large oscillating currents that occur in the primary, and those transferred to the burst in the secondary.

The principle of operation of the transmitter coil primary tank circuit is explained in detail in the post Spark Gap Generator – Part 2. In fig. 4.2 the current (red) in the single wire medium has become far more impulse-like in nature, rather than the oscillating sinusoidal established in the primary coil ring-down as the tank capacitors discharge in the series resonant tank circuit. It is conjectured that these impulse-like currents may be indicative of the burst wavefront constituting the LMD mode, within the cavity formed between the transmitter and receiver coil top-loads. It may also indicate more clearly why it is possible to observe radiant energy and matter phenomena more easily in a SGG driven TMT system, compared to a VTG or linear amplifier driven TMT system. That is, the nature of the burst currents generated in the primary resonant tank circuit by the SGG generator lend themselves more readily, when induced into the secondary cavity, to the LMD mode in the form of impulse-like, uni-directional bursts. These more uni-directional bursts in turn lead to an intensified wavefront in the cavity and the clearer observation of Tesla’s radiant energy and matter phenomena. This experimental area will be explored in much more detail in subsequent posts, but for now serves as an empirical introduction to these fascinating phenomena.

Fig. 4.1. shows the oscillating voltage and currents generated by the SGG in the primary resonant tank circuit. The oscillating currents (green) are a product of the stored energy in the tank capacitors repeatedly transferred backwards and forwards between the tank capacitors and the inductance of the primary coil. As the stored energy is consumed by transfer to the secondary circuit, and by dissipation as heat, light, and noise in the spark gap, and the series resistances of the primary tank circuit, the envelope of the primary current decays until all stored energy in the current cycle is expended. The oscillating nature of the current when transferred from the primary to the secondary tends to cause “dragging” or “smearing” of the LMD wavefront in the secondary cavity reducing the potency and impact of the pressurised wavefront.

In the most ideal case the wavefront would constitute a single pulse of very large amplitude and with very short pulse width, resembling as closely as possible a true impulse function. This pulse wavefront would traverse the cavity in a uni-directional manner with no reflections or dispersion leading to a singular and positive acting pressure wave with both the di-electric and magnetic fields of induction coherently in phase. In this ideal case the transfer of electric power could be 100% between transmitter and receiver, or if radiant energy phenomena are so arranged by a suitable load or emitter in the single wire transmission medium of the cavity, 100% wireless transfer of electric power could be arranged between many points. The intense radiant energy burst from the strong wavefront may also generate a wide range of unusual and hitherto unexplored electrical and matter phenomena, which may in turn also assist in the experimental exploration of the displacement of electric power, the hidden underlying coherent guiding principle of the undifferentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction.

This most ideal case requires that in the primary tank circuit all the energy stored in the tank capacitor per cycle is transferred to the secondary within the first half-cycle of the ring-down. This would create a single pulse from each cycle where all energy available in the tank circuit is transferred to the secondary, in effect driving the primary with a pulse generator. In order to do this it would be necessary to quench the spark gap after the first half-cycle of the discharge, and also ensure that the impedance of the primary circuit was sufficiently low that all the stored energy in the tank could be discharged in this first half-cycle. Both of these requirements present very challenging practical implementations, and will be explored in more detail in subsequent posts.

Tank circuit capacitance optimisation

In the current primary circuit the tank capacitance was adjusted in three different configurations in order to find the optimum operating point for the experiments in the transference of electric power powered by the SGG. The circuit diagram in figure 2 shows the arrangement of the tank capacitor in these three configurations:

1. 2.3nF 16kV from two series MMC units of four capacitors each. This is the tank capacity used in the video experiment and is very stable with only a very small reduction in the amount of power transferred to the receiver load. From figs. 3.3 and 3.4 the resonant frequency of the series primary tank at M1 is 1.09Mc/s. Good stable operation could be established up to ~800W.

2. 1.9nF 20kV from two series MMC units of four and six capacitors respectively. This tank capacity increased slightly the amount of power transferred to the receiver load over configuration 1, but the unbalanced capacity either side of the primary coil, (4 cap. unit one side, 6 cap. unit the other side), was found to lead to more instability in the spark discharge including “popping” and material ejection at the electrodes at powers only up to 500W. The resonant frequency of the tank circuit in this configuration is ~ 1.2Mc/s

3. 1.6nF 24kV from two series MMC units of six capacitors each. This was found to be the lowest practical tank capacity when running at powers up to 1kW. Lower than this the spark gap became too aggressive and erratic for good accurate measurements and stability in the transference of electric power. The resonant frequency of the tank circuit in this configuration is ~ 1.3Mc/s

Overall, configuration 1 was selected for most experiments in the transference of electric power, providing the best balance between longer-term stable and reliable operation of the spark gap, and with acceptable energy transfer to the transmitter secondary coil.

The other feature of the tank circuit was to minimise the inductance of the connections and components. The optimum condition is for all the current in the tank circuit to contribute to generating a magnetic field only within the primary coil itself, which maximizes the magnetic field coupling to the secondary coil. In practise magnetic fields are also created around the inductance of the tank circuit connections and components, storing some of the available tank circuit energy, and reducing the magnetic field generated within the primary coil. The inductance of the tank circuit components is kept minimum by keeping connection wires short and made from large many stranded conductors, by using copper busbars, and solid aluminium or copper mounting blocks for larger components. In the circuit diagram of fig. 2 the low inductance parts of the tank circuit extend from the spark gap to the primary coil and are indicated by thicker connecting wires.

Tuning indifference when powering a load

One of the most notable differences between the experiments in part 1 and 2, is that power dissipated in the both the single wire load and the receiver load varies only slightly with large changes to the transmitter and receiver primary tuning capacitor. The transmitter tuning capacitor was varied over the range 20-1200pF which in figs. 3.1 and 3.2 shows very large changes to the frequency spectrum of the TMT system. However when powered from a properly adjusted spark gap generator the bulbs in the single wire transmission medium remain well-lit over much of the tuning range. This is in stark contrast to part 1 where power dissipated or transferred in the various loads were very dependent on the tuning condition of the transmitter and receiver, and to the matching conditions of the VTG to the primary of the transmitter.

In fig. 4.2 we see that currents in the single wire transmission medium are much more impulse-like and consist of many narrow pulse excitations and rapid bursts. The spectral content of this time-domain signal will be very wide with energy distributed over a very broad-bandwidth, and consistent with the properties of the spark gap stimulus in the primary circuit. With such a wide bandwidth of frequencies present at the single wire load we would expect the bulbs to be illuminated irrespective of the tuning in the transmitter primary. Many frequencies are being transferred from the primary to the secondary circuit which is characteristic and typical of the properties of this experiment when driven from a spark gap based generator.

Given the above as a broad comparison with the experiment in part 1, tuning around the upper and lower resonant frequencies of the flat coil transmitter causes a slight increase in brightness for the single wire load, showing that more energy is selectively coupled at these frequencies from the generator as would also be expected from part 1, and from the frequency characteristics measured in figs. 3.1-3.4.

Reduced power in the single wire load and receiver load

The spread of energy over a very wide bandwidth results in less energy being dissipated in both the single wire load and also in the receiver load, as compared the single frequency oscillator experiment in part 1.

1. In the case of the single wire load, the bulbs can still be lit to almost full brightness since all the power from all transferred frequencies is being dissipated in this load. The bulb brightness showing the average power dissipation over many bursts coming from the spark gap generator. At an input power of 300W to the HV supply it was possible to illuminate the single wire load to around two-thirds of its maximum rating, so ~45W. At 500W the load could be illuminated fully to ~60W.

2. In the case of the receiver load, much less power could be coupled into this load even when tuned correctly as a complete TMT system, as shown in figs. 3.3 and 3.4. The single wire load had to be first removed to prevent power dissipation at this load, and then the receiver load could be illuminated to maximum ~0.5 of its total power e.g. about 25W. From the wide-band of frequencies available in the single wire transmission medium only a very narrow range at the resonant frequency of the receiver flat coil are transferred from the single wire to the receiver load. It should however be noted that the receiver bulb loads where illuminated dimly over the entire tuning range of the transmitter primary and the receiver primary. This again shows that a little of that wide bandwidth of energy is coupled to the receiver irrespective of the tuning, again tuning indifference based on the spectral content of the source energy.

In this case the spark gap generator is far from optimal for the transference of electric power, where for the same input power as in part 1, less energy is transferred to the single wire load, and very much less energy can be transferred to the receiver load. This proves to be the case even when the TMT system is optimally tuned as shown in figs. 3.3 and 3.4, and by further comparison with the optimal tuning results in part 1 of this experiment.

Tesla radiant energy and matter phenomena

These phenomena form some of the most interesting and unusual aspects of this TMT experiment using a spark gap generator. Whilst these effects can also be observed in the same experiment using a single frequency oscillator, linear amplifier, or other oscillating source they are much reduced in intensity when compared with a spark gap generator, burst oscillator, pulse generator, or properly designed and operated impulse or displacement generator. The exploration of these phenomena in this experiment is only as an introduction to these effects, and properly requires a much more detailed experimentation and consideration, which will be presented in a subsequent post along with very much magnified phenomena results.

The preliminary phenomena observed in this experiment include:

1. Attracting metals to the surface of an incandescent bulb in the single wire cavity, where the bulb acts as an emitter of radiant energy.

2. Amplification or intensification of a radiant energy event by interaction with a living organism, (human hand).

3. Charging a capacitor with radiant energy by bringing it close to the emitting bulb.

4. Radiant matter pressure waves emanating from the emitting bulb and impacting on a living organism, (human hand).

It should be noted here that improving the uni-directional pulse nature of the generator system by, for example, including components such as 1B22 spark gap modulator tubes in the tank circuit, early magnetic quenching of the spark discharge, or other impulse/pulse/burst generation methods, considerably magnifies the observed phenomena. It is also important to note that these types of phenomena are best observed when  a cavity has been established using a resonant transformer, such as a Tesla coil, and where a longitudinal pressure wavefront is established within the cavity, preferably in an LMD type mode, or ideally with direct displacement.

Summary of the results and conclusions so far:

The transference of electric power experiment using the tuned TMT flat coil system has produced considerably different results when powered using a spark gap generator, as compared with the single frequency feedback oscillator in part 1. The key differences and results include the following:

1. Tuning indifference occurs due to the wide spectral bandwidth of the energy transferred from the generator to the final receiver load, and impacting on all parts of the TMT transmission system between these points.

2. Considerably reduced levels of transferred electric power both to the single wire transmission medium load, and the receiver load, for the same nominal input power to the HV supply of 300W. Again this is attributed to the diffuse spectral energy content when a wide bandwidth generator is connected to a narrow bandwidth high-Q TMT transmission system.

3. Tank circuit tuning configurations have shown that a de-tuned primary and secondary resonant frequency in the transmitter primary leads to the best balance between transferred electric power, and stable, consistent, and long-term reliable operating conditions.

4. Radiant energy and matter phenomena have been observed in the experiment, and indicate components and optimizations, including different generator configurations, that will intensify and maximise these unusual observations.

5. Generator configurations and types that improve the impulse/pulse/burst nature of the transferred energy may intensify radiant energy phenomena by generating a more uni-directional pressure wavefront in longitudinal system, which may also provide additional insight into the preliminary investigations into the displacement of electric power.

The results for the transference of electric power in the near-field using a spark gap generator indicate that this form of generator is not well suited for energy transmission in the narrow bandwidth high-Q TMT system. A very large and robust spark gap generator would be required to transfer adequate power from generator to load, with considerable losses at the spark gap, huge electromagnetic interference to the surrounding medium, and invasive and unstable operating conditions. However this form of generator does appear to lend itself to phenomena that arise from the longitudinal pressure wavefront generated in the cavity of a resonant transformer, such as a Tesla coil. As such it is conjectured that this form of generator may be useful in the exploration of displacement, the hidden underlying coherent guiding principle of the undifferentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction.


1. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.

2. Dollard, E. and Energetic Forum Members, Energetic Forum, 2008 onwards.