ESTC 2022 – Vector Network Analysis & Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Plasma Discharges

At the 2022 Energy, Science, and Technology conference[1] in Spokane USA, AMInnovations gave an extensive and detailed presentation on Advanced Measurements Techniques for Tesla Coils, which included a two-part demonstration on the live analysis of a 2-coil Tesla transformer, and a live demonstration of the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern discharge for the first time since its discovery by Eric Dollard in the 1990s. This was the first ESTC conference that AMInnovations could attend since 2019 due to the travel restrictions from the UK to the USA resulting from the global Covid pandemic. The full official ESTC video presentation and demonstrations, over 4 hours in total, can be purchased directly from A & P Electronic Media[2] here. The AMInnovations presentation in pdf format as presented at the conference can be downloaded here. The Tesla transformer used in both demonstrations is the original Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Discharge Coil from the Wheelwork of Nature series, first analysed using the vector network analyser to reveal the ac small signal input impedance Z11, and then driven using a high-power 2.5kW Class-C Armstrong auto-tune power oscillator. This demonstration shows for the first time since Eric Dollard’s demonstration in the 1990s, the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Discharge showing the underlying natural order and organisation of electricity, as part of this fascinating electrical phenomena.

Building, operating, and optimising a working Tesla magnifying transmitter (TMT) system for the maximum transfer of electric power with minimum loss, requires detailed measurement, tuning, and accurate generator and load matching. Measurement of such a TMT system in the frequency domain, using affordable yet sophisticated equipment such as a vector network analyser (VNA), can reveal a wealth of important experimental data. Properly interpreted this data can show how best to operate and tune the system, as well as revealing a deeper understanding of how these fascinating electrical systems work. Vector network analysis is a vast and complex subject which has classically involved considerable training, an established background in electrical engineering, combined with very expensive equipment. The purpose of the presentation at ESTC was to introduce this advanced measurement technique in a simple and practical fashion with equipment affordable to the individual researcher, experimenter, or inventor.

The first video below shows the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern discharge experiment presented at ESTC 2022. Prior to the conference, and in case the equipment did not reach the final destination for the conference, or was damaged in transit, the full experiment was run and filmed in the AMInnovations lab for use at the conference in place of the live demonstration. This video also includes an overview of the equipment used, and the conditions necessary for generation of the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern discharge, which are also covered extensively in the Wheelwork of Nature series.

The second video shows an unplanned live video experiment run during the ESTC 2022 conference which combined the Fractal-Fern demonstration apparatus, and the carbon button lamp made by Griffin Brock[3], who also presented and demonstrated at the conference. The experiment shows a range of interesting plasma discharge phenomena as the button lamp gradually collapses from its vacuum state up to standard air pressure. The range of visual plasma effects give the impression of a solar system in the bulb, followed by the death of the star to become a black hole, and then emerging as a “cosmic” worm hole, and finally the supernova effect breaking out of the containment of the bulb. This experimental sequence of plasma effects has been colloquially named the “Cosmic Worm Hole” experiment.

On the 10th July actually during the 2022 ESTC conference it would have been Tesla’s 161st birthday. In honour and celebration of Nicola Tesla and his monumental achievements throughout his life, we filmed this short video with a model of Tesla in front of the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern experimental system.

Figure 1 below shows the simplified schematic for the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Discharge apparatus used at ESTC, which consists of the 2-coil Tesla transformer, and the AMInnovations bespoke Minigen and MiniHT unit, which are specifically configured and matched to produce this special form of plasma discharge when used with the specific coil. The high-resolution version can be viewed by clicking on the following link ESTC 2022 Demonstration.

Figures 2 below show the small signal impedance measurements for Z11 for the Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Discharge coil which were measured for the presentation and prior to the conference.

Overall the 2022 ESTC Conference was a great success and AMInnovations played a significant role in contributing high quality and cutting edge science and technology, and culminating in a live demonstration never before seen by the New Science community since Eric Dollard’s demonstration in the 1990s. The presentation and demonstrations covered the following:

1. A philosophy of science type introduction to the why, how, and what of electrical measurement.

2. An introduction to the properties of Tesla coils, including resonance, coupling, tuning, and matching generators and loads.

3. An introduction to the principles of vector network analysis.

4. Taking a look at equipment suited to this measurement technique both at the high-end, and the affordable end, with a comparison of the range of measurements available from both, and the likely accuracy and limitations which they present.

5. How to calibrate, setup, and prepare a network analyser to measure a Tesla coil.

6. How to make impedance measurements over a frequency band, and interpret the meaning of the measured results.

7. Impedance measurement comparison under different operating conditions, including the effects of coupling, primary, secondary, and extra coil tuning, and loading.

8. How to identify the best points of operation from the measurements, and then optimize the system for the maximum transference of electric power.

9. How to match a generator to a Tesla coil using the measured impedance characteristics.

10. A live measurement demonstration using the Golden-Ratio/Fractal Fern Discharge coil connected to a portable and affordable vector network analyser.

11. A Tesla transformer discharge demonstration using the VNA measured coil to show the Golden-Ratio/Fractal Fern Discharge electrical phenomena for the first time since Eric Dollard in the 1990s.


1. ESTC 2022, Energy, Science, and Technology Conference, A & P Electronic Media , 2022, ESTC

2. Marsh, A. Advanced Measurement Techniques for Tesla Coils, A & P Electronic Media, 2022, EMediaPress

3. Brock, G. Electrical Investigations & Researches, 2022, GriffinBrock

4. A & P Electronic Media, AMInnovations by Adrian Marsh, 2019,  EMediaPress