Experiments in the displacement and transference of electric power. (Click to enlarge images, and hover to pause slides)
A vacuum tube generator using secondary coil self-resonant feedback to drive the primary coil in CW or burst mode.
A potential radiant energy event, and a conjectured emission from a coherent displacement event. An aluminium leaf being attracted towards a light/rf emitter and load (bulb).
The vacuum tube generator used in burst mode, and showing the envelope of the burst containing an internal CW frequency of 1889kc/s.
Input impedance frequency measurements of the twin coil experimental apparatus compared on a HP4195A and a SDR-Kits DG8SAQ VNA
Input impedance Z11, as seen by the generator, of the two flat coils bottom-end connected via the experimental load, and tuned to give a balanced impedance.
Telluric electric power transmission tests at the upper resonant frequency of the flat coil 3038kc/s and 425W generator input power.
Telluric electric power reception tests at the upper resonant frequency of a tuned flat coil.
Measured upper resonant frequency of oscillation for the single flat coil in Telluric electric power transmission tests.
"Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities ...""Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas ...""Electric power is everywhere present in unlimited quantities and can drive the world's machinery without the need of coal, oil, gas, or any other of the common fuels."Nikola Tesla c. 1900
ESTC 2019, the Energy, Science, and Technology Conference, included a presentation and working demonstration by Eric Dollard on Tesla’s Colorado Springs experiment (TCS), which is available through A & P Electronic Media[3,4]. Due to unforseen circumstances relating to the demonstration co-worker, the generator for this experiment was unavailable after the demonstration for additional experimentation, investigation, and follow-up demonstrations. In agreement with Eric Dollard I suggested that the spark gap generator from the Vril Science Multiwave Oscillator Product, (MWO), could be adapted, tuned, and applied to the Colorado Springs experiment, and in order to facilitate ongoing investigation and experimentation throughout the conference period. What follows in this post is the story of how this successful endeavour unfolded in the form of videos, pictures, measurements, and of course the final results.
The first video below shows highlights from the endeavour, video footage was recorded and supplied by Paul Fraser, and reproduced here with permission from A & P Electronic Media.
The second video below shows highlights from the impedance measurements part of the endeavour, video footage again by Paul Fraser, and by Raui Searle.
Figures 1 below show a range of pictures of the original transmitter and receiver setup from Eric Dollard’s TCS demonstration, including the generator used to power the experiment, and key results from the original demonstration. The red “transmitter” coil (RTC) was subsequently modified after the demonstration, (secondary coil re-wound, and with a single copper strap primary), in order to work well with the MWO spark gap generator. The green “receiver” coil (GRC) was left un-modified for the purpose of the endeavour, although it could be fine tuned using the extra coil telescopic extension. Ultimately for on-going experiments using the MWO generator, the GRC would be re-wound and adapted to more closely match the RTC.
Fig. 1.1 The coil arrangement for the TCS demonstration by Eric Dollard, showing both the red transmitter coil and the green receiver coil.
Fig. 1.2 The red transmitter coil showing the general arrangement of the primary, secondary, and the extra coil.
Fig. 1.3 The generator is connected to the primary via a balanced transmission line, and the secondary is connected to the green receiver coil via an rf ammeter.
Fig. 1.4 The receiver load is a 500W incandescent light bulb, connected to the primary of the receiver coil. The receiver is connected by a single wire to the transmitter.
Fig. 1.5 The linear amplifier is a 1000W Denton Clipperton-L, and is connnected to the red transmitter coil via a matching unit.
Fig. 1.6 The linear amplifier output matching unit is in itself a tuned resonant transformer, which matches the output of the amplifier on the 160m band to the much lower impedance of the primary in the MW band.
Fig. 1.7 The output of the matching unit is via variable high voltage tuning capacitors in parallel with the output coil.
Fig. 1.8 The input to the matching unit is via a balanced transmission line to a tuned vacuum capacitor, and in parallel with the twin series connected input coils.
Fig. 1.9 The signal source for the linear amplifier is from an ICOM 7300 amateur radio receiver, modified to transmit on the MW band at 848.4kc/s.
Fig. 1.10 The Denton linear amplifier has no matching input network, hence a matching unit is required between the ICOM 7300 transceiver and the amplifier.
Fig. 1.11 All parts of the system connected together prior to the beginning of the demonstration.
Fig. 1.12 Last minute tuning checks by Eric Dollard prior to turning up the power for music transmission to the green receiver via the MW band.
Fig. 1.13 Checking for a null point between the transmitter and the receiver using a domestic flourescent tube to indicate the local electric field strength.
Fig. 1.14 Investigating the field around the extra coil extension using a helium-neon tube.
Fig. 1.15 Transmission of electric power from the transmitter to the receiver via a single wire, and lighting fully a 500W incandescent bulb.
The original TCS demonstration was powered by a 1000W linear amplifier generator being driven at ~ 800W output to light a 500W incandescent bulb at the receiver primary, and where the electric power is transferred between the RTC and GRC by a single wire. The TCS demonstration with both coils fully configured and connected to the generator was tuned to a drive frequency of 848.4 kc/s, as can be seen in fig. 1.9 as the selected frequency of the transceiver.
The transceiver is an ICOM-7300 which must have been modified to allow transmit on all frequencies, a modification that allows a radio amateur transceiver to generate a transmit signal outside of the designated amateur bands. This kind of modification turns a transceiver into a powerful bench top signal generator, with full modulation capabilities, and matched output powers from the transceiver alone of up to 100W in the MF and HF bands (300kc/s – 30Mc/s). 848 kc/s is in the MW (MF) radio broadcast band, and amplitude modulation is well suited here for the transmission of voice and music signals, as was also demonstrated in the original experiment.
The ICOM transceiver is connected via a matching unit to the Denton linear amplifier. This specific brand and model of linear amplifier has no matching unit at its input, which is why external matching is required from the ICOM 50Ω output to the lower impedance Denton input. The passive matching unit is shown in fig. 1.10, and also in the schematic of fig. 2.1.
The Denton Clipperton-L is a linear amplifier using 4 x 572B vacuum tubes with a band selected matching unit at its output, and a total output peak voltage of ~ 500V. The lowest band provided internally for matching at the output of the amplifier is the HF 160m band at ~ 1.8Mc/s. The much lower MW signal at 848kc/s would need additional matching and balancing between the amplifier output and the input to the primary of the RTC, (the output of the amplifier is an unbalanced feed e.g. coaxial, whereas the connecting transmission line and the primary are better fed with a balanced feed). The amplifier passive matching unit is shown in figures 1.6 – 1.8, and is also shown in the schematic of fig. 2.1.
The various different experiments conducted in the original demonstration included the following:
Fig 1.13. Shows Eric Dollard finding the null electric field region between the RTC and GRC, and using a 6′ domestic fluorescent tube light.
Fig 1.14. Shows Eric Dollard testing the field surrounding the RTC extra coil extension top load, using a helium-neon gas filled tube.
Fig 1.15. Shows single wire transmission of electric power, and fully lighting a 500W incandescent light bulb at the primary of the GRC.
Figures 2 below show the schematics for both the linear amplifier generator and coil arrangement for Eric Dollard’s original TCS demonstration, and a second schematic for the TCS experiment retune using the MWO spark gap generator. The high-resolution versions can be viewed by clicking on the following links TCS Demonstration, and TCS Retune.
Fig. 2.1 Schematic diagram for the TCS demonstration by Eric Dollard, showing the generator, matching units, and coil arrangements.
Fig. 2.2 Schematic diagram for the TCS retune by Adrian Marsh & Eric Dollard, showing the MWO generator, tuning capacitors, and modified coil arrangements.
Figures 3 below show the small signal impedance measurements for Z11 for the TCS coils, and also the tuning measurements for the coils and spark gap generator together, which were taken throughout the endeavour and used to ensure a well tuned match between the generator and the TCS experiment.
Fig. 3.1 Shows the Z11 impedance for the RTC with the extra coil not connected. The bottom end of the secondary is grounded.
Fig. 3.2 Shows the secondary and the extra coil connected together. The bottom end of the secondary is grounded, and the extra coil extension aerial is fully extended.
Fig. 3.3 The RTC and GRC are connected by a single wire, and with both extra coil aerial extensions fully extended.
Fig. 3.4 The RTC and GRC are connected by a single wire, and with both extra coil aerial extensions adjusted to balance the impedance of the fundamental resonant frequency.
Fig. 3.5 The RTC consisting of a 2 turn copper pipe primary, secondary, and extra coil with extension is connected to the MWO generator at the spark gap outputs, showing the overall tuning from the perspective of the generator.
Fig. 3.6 The RTC consisting of a 1 turn copper pipe primary and connected to the MWO generator at the spark gap outputs.
Fig. 3.7 The RTC with a 1 turn copper strap primary connected to the output tuned MWO generator at the spark gap outputs, and showing a clean tuning for the fundamental resonant frequency at 822kc/s.
To view the large images in a new window whilst reading the explanations click on the figure numbers below, and for a more detailed explanation of the mathematical symbols used in the analysis of the results click here. For further detail in the analysis and consideration of Z11 typical for a Tesla coil based system click here.
Fig 3.1. Shows the impedance measurements for the RTC with the secondary grounded, the extra coil disconnected, and where the primary tank capacitance has been arranged to be series CP = 40pf, which puts the primary resonant frequency FP at a much higher frequency and far away from the secondary. This would be the proper drive condition for the original linear amplifier generator (LAG) where FP is not arranged to be equal to FS. For the spark gap generator (SGG) it is necessary to match FP as closely as possible to the combined resonant frequency of the secondary and the extra coil together. The fundamental parallel resonant frequency of the secondary Fs at M1 = 1326kc/s, and as is to be expected with this form of air-cored coil, the FØ180 or series resonant point at which a 180° phase change occurs, is at a higher frequency at 1571kc/s at M2. At M3 = 2398kc/s a tiny resonance is being coupled from the disconnected extra coil which, being mounted in the centre on axis with the secondary, is close enough to have a non-zero coupling coefficient, and hence show some slight resonation reflected into the measurement.
Fig 3.2. Here the extra coil has been reconnected and two resonant features can be noted, the lower from the secondary, and the upper from the extra coil. The effect of the coupled resonance between the two coils with a non-zero coupling coefficient is to push the secondary resonance down in frequency to where the FS at M1 is now at 826kc/s which is very close to the original drive frequency of the linear amplifier generator at 848kc/s. The fundamental resonant frequency of the extra coil, (now in λ/4 mode with one end at a lower impedance connected to the secondary, and the other connected to the high impedance of the extendable aerial), at M3 is now 1725kc/s
Fig 3.3. Here both the RTC and GRC have been connected together to complete the overall system, and where the bottom end of both secondaries are connected together by a single wire transmission line. Both the RTC and GRC have their extra coil adjustable extensions fully extended. It can be seen that both the secondary and extra coil resonant frequencies have been split in two, to reveal four resonant frequencies from the four main coils, 2 in the RTC, and 2 in the GRC. The markers at M1 at 833kc/s and M3 are due to the secondary resonance in the RTC and GRC respectively, and the markers at M5 at 1752kc/s and M7 at 1801kc/s are due to the extra coils. It can be noted that the impedance of the RTC and GRC are not well-balanced the resonance is stronger on the RTC side where |Z| at M1 ~ 741Ω, and M3 ~ 342Ω. During running operation with either the LAG or SGG this would result in more energy stored in the RTC coil, the standing wave null on the single wire transmission line would be pushed away from the RTC and towards the GRC, and less power would be available at the output of the primary in the GRC.
Fig 3.4. Here the lengths of the extra coil extensions have been adjusted to balance |Z| at M1 and M3 at ~500Ω. The RTC extended length was 57cm, and the GRC extended length was 84cm, measured from the copper to aerial join, and to the base of the ball top load. With very fine adjustment, which is very difficult to accomplish, it may be possible to also balance |Z| for the extra coils at M5 and M7. This would result in the ideal balanced and equilibrium state, where the electric and magnetic fields of induction are balanced across the entire system, energy storage is equal, the null point is equidistant between the RTC and the GRC, and maximum power can be transferred between the two coils. In practice, when |Z| for the fundamental secondary resonance is equal, as shown, the overall system can be considered to be well-balanced, and will perform close to its maximum performance. Very slight adjustments to the drive frequency from the generator can then be used to nudge the system into the best overall balance and match. FS at M1 is now 858kc/s which is now close to the original drive frequency of the LAG at 848kc/s.
Fig 3.5. Shows the impedance characteristics of the RTC from the perspective of the SGG. The vector network analyser (VNA) is connected to the outputs of the spark gaps in the generator, so the characteristics include the tank capacitance of 6.1nF and the primary coil, which in this case is 2 turns of 1/4″ copper pipe. It can be seen that the resonant frequency of the primary FP is somewhat below FS as M1 at 549kc/s, and is moving away from M2 and M3. FS has also reduced to 801kc/s at M2 which also shows that the loading in the primary is too much. The inductance of the primary coil, or the tank capacitance, needs to be reduced in order to establish a better match between the generator and the RTC.
Fig 3.6. Here the number of turns of the primary has been reduced to one, which reduces the inductance in the primary resonant circuit with the generator. M1 is now closer to M2 and M3 and the FS has now increased to 819kc/s. The tuning between the generator and the RTC has now swung slightly the other way and the primary is pushing upwards on the secondary characteristics. This state is however a better state of tune than that shown in figure 3.5. It can also be seen that FE for the extra coil is cleaner and less impacted by the primary resonance. Additional fine tuning of the system would ultimately be accomplished by moving one side of the primary connection a certain distance around the circumference of the primary loop, (to form a fractional number of turns in the primary e.g. 1.4), and gain balanced and equidistant spacing for markers M1 and M3 from M2.
Fig 3.7. Here the single turn copper pipe primary has been replaced with a single turn copper strap, which was deemed to present a lower impedance to the generator, and improve the magnitude of the oscillating currents in the primary. In order to further improve the tuning two 22nF 3kV capacitors in parallel (44nF) were added to one of the outputs of the SGG as shown in the schematic of figure 2.2. This reduced the tank capacitance slightly from 6.1nF to 5.4nF. The inductance of the strap was measured to be 2.5uH which combined with the tank capacitance of 5.4nF provides a theoretical lumped element resonant frequency of 1370kc/s. referring back to figure 3.1 it can be seen that FS, the resonant frequency of the secondary, without the extra coil at M1 is 1326kc/s. So the primary circuit tuned and driven at this point has a very close match to the secondary coil, which ensures that maximum energy can be coupled from the primary to the secondary, and then combined with the extra coil, maximum power can be transferred from the generator to the RTC, and ultimately to the GRC when further connected. For the purposes of this endeavour this state of retune was considered adequate for further demonstration and exploration of the Colorado Springs experiment.
The experimental phenomena observed during the operation of the TCS experiment, retuned to work with the MWO generator, can be seen in the first video on this page.
Summary of the endeavour:
The overall endeavour facilitated the demonstration and exploration of tuning and operating the MWO spark gap generator to work with the Colorado Springs demonstration. In the process the RTC primary and secondary needed to be modified for optimum running with the SGG. Throughout the endeavour a wide range of measurements were demonstrated including:
1. Z11 impedance measurements for the series fed secondary and extra coil, for the RTC.
2. Z11 impedance measurements for the primary combined with the secondary, and the exta coil, for the RTC.
3. Combined Z11 impedance measurements for both the RTC and GRC, where the bottom ends of both secondaries were connected together to form a single wire transmission line.
4. Fine tuning of the system by adjusting the wire length of the extra coil extensions, in order to balance |Z11| in the fundamental and second harmonics.
5. Z11 impedance measurements using a computer connected vector network analyser.
The endeavour also facilitated the demonstration and exploration of the following interesting Tesla related phenomena:
6. Single wire electric power transmission.
7. Longitudinal transmission of electric power.
8. Emission of radiant energy pulses from an incandescent bulb.
9. Radiant energy pulses attracting metal to the bulb.
10. Amplification of radiant energy by interaction with a human hand.
11. Transference of electric power between a TMT “transmitter” and “receiver”.
Click here to continue to the next part, ESTC 2022 – Vector Network Analysis & Golden-Ratio/Fractal-Fern Plasma Discharges.
1. ESTC 2019, Energy, Science, and Technology Conference, A & P Electronic Media , 2019, ESTC
2. Dollard E., Preview of Theory, Calculation & Operation of Colorado Springs Tesla Transformer, 2019, EricPDollard
In this second part on the transference of electric power we take a look at the differences that arise when a spark gap generator (SGG) is used as the power source for the experiment rather than a single frequency oscillator as used in part 1. It is recommended to study part 1 before this second part, in order to gain an underlying understanding of the overall experiment, phenomena, results, and suggested interpretation of the experimental results, that are characteristic to the practical investigations in the transference of electric power.
Unlike a single frequency oscillator or linear amplifier generator, a spark gap generator produces a very broad range of frequencies which result from the abrupt and impulse-like discharge that occurs at the spark gap. Frequencies generated by such a spark gap discharge, range from the very low in the 10s of Hz, all the way up to 100s of MHz, and beyond into GHz frequencies. With such a wide frequency band the stored energy available in the tank capacitors, which are charged at each half-cycle of the HV supply, is distributed across this wide band leading to two significant factors. Firstly that considerably less energy is available from the source at the resonant frequency of the transmitter coil, and secondly, tuning of the TMT transmission system has considerably less effect on the transference of electric power between the generator source and the receiver load.
The experimental work in this part is intended to investigate and demonstrate aspects of the following:
1. Tuning measurements using a vector network analyser to measure Z11, the small signal ac input impedance for the experimental system, from the perspective of the spark gap generator.
2. Tuning indifference when powering a load either in the single wire transmission line or at the output of the receiver.
3. Reduced power available in the single wire transmission line.
4. Reduced power available in the receiver load.
5. Tesla radiant energy and matter phenomena.
6. Transference of electric power between the transmitter and receiver in the near field.
Figures 1 below show an overview of the experimental arrangement which consists of two flat coils used as transmitter and receiver and joined via the base of the secondary coils by a single wire transmission line with an inline 60W four incandescent lamp load, (4 x 15W 240V pygmy lamps). The transmitter primary is connected to the Spark Gap Generator via a matching unit which consists of two compound series tank capacitors, shunted 4 x 1B22 hydrogen-argon spark gap modulator tubes, and a 1200pF vacuum variable capacitor in parallel with the 2 turn copper strap primary.
The receiver primary is tuned by another parallel connected 1000pF vacuum variable capacitor which in turn is connected to a 50W two incandescent lamp load. The outer end terminal of the receiver primary is connected directly to RF ground via a low inductance ground strap. As in part 1 the secondary coils of the transmitter and receiver are positioned facing each other on axis 1.5m apart, and are counter-wound to each other in order to produce a balanced and reciprocal cavity arrangement.
Fig. 1.1 Transference of electric power powered by the spark gap generator, showing the transmitted power dissipated in the single wire load.
Fig. 1.2 Tuned at the lower resonant frequency of the TMT system, power is dissipated in the single wire load, and with no significant power transmitted to the receiver load.
Fig. 1.2 Optimally tuned for balanced transfer of electric power, and with the single wire load removed from the transmission medium, a small proportion of power could be transferred to the receiver load.
Fig. 1.4 At optimal balanced tuning RF currents in the primary ~4.5A, and secondary ~250mA, are high although only a small proportion of power is transferred from the generator to the receiver load.
Fig. 1.5 The spark gap generator runs quietly and stabily with the 2.3nF tank capacitance, with strong tank oscillations in the transmitter primary. RF primary current reaches ~4.5A with an total input power of just over 400W to the HV Supply.
Fig. 1.6 The 1B22 hydrogen argon spark tubes are shunted with copper bars out of the primary tank circuit for these experiments. Their internal resistance when triggered is significant, reducing the magnitude of the primary oscillations and reducing the total power transferred to the receiver.
Figure 2 below show the schematic for the transference of electric power experiment powered by the SGG. The high-resolution version can be viewed by clicking here.
Fig. 2.2 Schematic diagram for the TMT transmission experiment showing the HV Supply, the Spark Gap unit, the tank circuit components, and the transmitter and receiver coils with loads and single wire transmission medium.
The principle of operation and matching requirements are somewhat different between the vacuum tube generator (VTG) and the SGG. In the VTG maximum power transfer between the generator and primary is accomplished when the impedance of the primary resonant circuit is equal to the combined vacuum tube internal impedance, when oscillating at the designed and configured operating point, (class C amplifier), for the tuned primary frequency, and run in CW (continuous wave) mode. In this case the primary circuit is not arranged to resonate at the same frequency as the secondary, where oscillating primary currents would be far too large and lead to destruction of the vacuum tubes. Rather the correct impedance match between the primary and tube oscillator facilitates maximum transfer of power from the non-resonant tube tank circuit to the tuned primary circuit, whilst keeping vacuum tube power dissipation under the maximum combined rating for the tubes.
In the SGG case it is in principle optimal to arrange the resonant frequencies of the primary tank circuit, and the secondary coil to be the same. In this case bursts of very large and maximal oscillating currents are generated in the primary tank circuit, which in turn result in strong magnetic coupling to the secondary circuit, and hence maximum power transfer between the resonant primary tank, and the secondary resonant coil. In practice matched primary tank and secondary coil resonant frequencies cause considerable operating issues when running, as the very high oscillating currents, in the high-Q low impedance primary, result in a very aggressive, unstable, and erratic spark discharge. The de-tuning of the circuit, by deliberate mis-match of the primary tank circuit resonant frequency and the secondary resonant frequency, reduces the Q considerably of the primary, reduces slightly the coupling between the primary and the secondary, whilst considerably stabilising the spark gap discharge to be suitable for experiments in the transference of electric power through a high-Q TMT transmission system.
In the case where a Tesla coil is being used for maximum streamer discharge, it is accepted as best practice to match the primary tank resonant frequency as close as possible to the secondary coil resonant frequency. Here maximum energy is coupled into the secondary and dissipated through the top-load accumulator. In this case the primary frequency is usually de-tuned slightly below the secondary frequency to maximise power transfer during streamer discharge, which leads to very white-hot powerful discharges. For example for a coil arranged to resonate with suitable top-load at 1.7Mc/s the primary resonant tank circuit would be tuned to resonate between ~ 1.5-1.6Mc/s, (~10% lower to compensate for secondary frequency drop on discharge). This case requires a very powerful and robust spark gap that will operate very aggressively, unstably, and producing large amounts of heat, light and noise.
In the case for a TMT transmission system using two or more Tesla coils matched and tuned together in a high-Q narrow bandwidth arrangement, and connected with a single wire and operated in a balanced LMD transmission mode, the primary resonant tank frequency is optimally arranged to be lower in frequency than the secondary resonant coil frequency. In this case there is only a small measured difference in total power being transferred from the generator to the final receiver load as a result of the deliberate primary resonant tank and secondary coil resonant frequency mis-match. For example for a coil arranged to free resonate into a single wire transmission line at 1.7Mc/s the primary resonant tank circuit would be tuned to resonate between ~ 1.0-1.3Mc/s.
The 1B22 hydrogen-argon spark gap tubes were shunted out of the circuit for experiments in the transference of electric power to the receiver load, as their higher internal resistance reduces the primary currents, causing a reduction in the total transmitted power. The shunts are made from copper sheet which remove the tubes from the circuit without increasing the inductance of the primary tank circuit. In experiments relating to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter it is possible to obtain improved results, (amplified phenomena), when the 1B22 tubes are included in the circuit. It is conjectured that the slight dioding action[1,2] as a result of the ionizing radioactive (Radium Ra-226) trigger element, and the improved pulse response of the primary tank circuit, improves the uni-directional energy supply from the tank circuit to the TMT system. This improved uni-directional energy supply increases the intensity of the LMD mode wavefront in the single wire cavity, amplifying radiant energy and matter phenomena.
A correctly triggered and functioning 1B22 will emit a dark purple spark discharge within the aluminium can of the cathode terminal, which is quickly quenched by the rarefied hydrogen-argon gas mix. A defective 1B22 with a leak to air will still work as a spark gap but will generate a brighter green-yellow discharge as aluminium is combusted from the cathode surface. The discharge sustains for longer causing considerable burning of the electrodes, and rapid over-heating causes distortion of the glass tube, with finally destruction of the electrodes.
The following video introduces the experimental setup, instrumentation, and readings, and looks in detail at Z11 the small signal impedance characteristics of the experiment from the perspective of the spark gap generator. It concludes with a range of experiments in the transference of electric power using a spark gap generator, combined with a preliminary introduction to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter experiments.
Figures 3 below show the detailed Z11 impedance measurements that were presented in the video, and will be referred to in the consideration of the experimental results.
Fig. 3.1 The wide band frequency scan from 100kHz - 25Mc/s showing the resonant frequency and odd harmonics of the secondary, and the large primary resonance with tuning capacitance fully open at 20pF. The resonance at marker 1 shows the tank circuit resonant frequency formed by the MMC capacitors and transmitter primary coil.
Fig. 3.2 The wide band frequency scan with transmitter primary capacitor fully wound in to ~1200pF.
Fig. 3.3 Transmitter primary capacitance tuned to optimally balance the lower and upper frequencies of the secondary and primary for both the transmitter and receiver, and giving an overall system resonant point of ~ 1.98-2.15Mc/s.
Fig. 3.4 Transmitter primary capacitance set to balance both the secondary and primary resonant points. The Q of the TMT transmission system has been reduced by connecting the 50W bulb load at the output of the receiver coil.
Figures 4 below show the oscillating voltages and currents in the primary transmitter tank circuit, and also those measured at the single wire load. In both the green and red traces the current amplifier is calibrated at 50A/div, showing the large oscillating currents that occur in the primary, and those transferred to the burst in the secondary.
Fig. 4.1 Shows the voltage (yellow) and current (green) at the transmitter primary coil. The strong oscillations in the tank circuit couple to the secondary.
Fig. 4.2 Shows the voltage (cyan) and current (red) at the bulb load in the single wire transmission medium. Currents in the single wire medium resemble impulse like oscillations, combined with smaller oscillations from the transmitter tank and transmitter secondary.
The principle of operation of the transmitter coil primary tank circuit is explained in detail in the post Spark Gap Generator – Part 2. In fig. 4.2 the current (red) in the single wire medium has become far more impulse-like in nature, rather than the oscillating sinusoidal established in the primary coil ring-down as the tank capacitors discharge in the series resonant tank circuit. It is conjectured that these impulse-like currents may be indicative of the burst wavefront constituting the LMD mode, within the cavity formed between the transmitter and receiver coil top-loads. It may also indicate more clearly why it is possible to observe radiant energy and matter phenomena more easily in a SGG driven TMT system, compared to a VTG or linear amplifier driven TMT system. That is, the nature of the burst currents generated in the primary resonant tank circuit by the SGG generator lend themselves more readily, when induced into the secondary cavity, to the LMD mode in the form of impulse-like, uni-directional bursts. These more uni-directional bursts in turn lead to an intensified wavefront in the cavity and the clearer observation of Tesla’s radiant energy and matter phenomena. This experimental area will be explored in much more detail in subsequent posts, but for now serves as an empirical introduction to these fascinating phenomena.
Fig. 4.1. shows the oscillating voltage and currents generated by the SGG in the primary resonant tank circuit. The oscillating currents (green) are a product of the stored energy in the tank capacitors repeatedly transferred backwards and forwards between the tank capacitors and the inductance of the primary coil. As the stored energy is consumed by transfer to the secondary circuit, and by dissipation as heat, light, and noise in the spark gap, and the series resistances of the primary tank circuit, the envelope of the primary current decays until all stored energy in the current cycle is expended. The oscillating nature of the current when transferred from the primary to the secondary tends to cause “dragging” or “smearing” of the LMD wavefront in the secondary cavity reducing the potency and impact of the pressurised wavefront.
In the most ideal case the wavefront would constitute a single pulse of very large amplitude and with very short pulse width, resembling as closely as possible a true impulse function. This pulse wavefront would traverse the cavity in a uni-directional manner with no reflections or dispersion leading to a singular and positive acting pressure wave with both the di-electric and magnetic fields of induction coherently in phase. In this ideal case the transfer of electric power could be 100% between transmitter and receiver, or if radiant energy phenomena are so arranged by a suitable load or emitter in the single wire transmission medium of the cavity, 100% wireless transfer of electric power could be arranged between many points. The intense radiant energy burst from the strong wavefront may also generate a wide range of unusual and hitherto unexplored electrical and matter phenomena, which may in turn also assist in the experimental exploration of the displacement of electric power, the hidden underlying coherent guiding principle of the undifferentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction.
This most ideal case requires that in the primary tank circuit all the energy stored in the tank capacitor per cycle is transferred to the secondary within the first half-cycle of the ring-down. This would create a single pulse from each cycle where all energy available in the tank circuit is transferred to the secondary, in effect driving the primary with a pulse generator. In order to do this it would be necessary to quench the spark gap after the first half-cycle of the discharge, and also ensure that the impedance of the primary circuit was sufficiently low that all the stored energy in the tank could be discharged in this first half-cycle. Both of these requirements present very challenging practical implementations, and will be explored in more detail in subsequent posts.
Tank circuit capacitance optimisation
In the current primary circuit the tank capacitance was adjusted in three different configurations in order to find the optimum operating point for the experiments in the transference of electric power powered by the SGG. The circuit diagram in figure 2 shows the arrangement of the tank capacitor in these three configurations:
1. 2.3nF 16kV from two series MMC units of four capacitors each. This is the tank capacity used in the video experiment and is very stable with only a very small reduction in the amount of power transferred to the receiver load. From figs. 3.3 and 3.4 the resonant frequency of the series primary tank at M1 is 1.09Mc/s. Good stable operation could be established up to ~800W.
2. 1.9nF 20kV from two series MMC units of four and six capacitors respectively. This tank capacity increased slightly the amount of power transferred to the receiver load over configuration 1, but the unbalanced capacity either side of the primary coil, (4 cap. unit one side, 6 cap. unit the other side), was found to lead to more instability in the spark discharge including “popping” and material ejection at the electrodes at powers only up to 500W. The resonant frequency of the tank circuit in this configuration is ~ 1.2Mc/s
3. 1.6nF 24kV from two series MMC units of six capacitors each. This was found to be the lowest practical tank capacity when running at powers up to 1kW. Lower than this the spark gap became too aggressive and erratic for good accurate measurements and stability in the transference of electric power. The resonant frequency of the tank circuit in this configuration is ~ 1.3Mc/s
Overall, configuration 1 was selected for most experiments in the transference of electric power, providing the best balance between longer-term stable and reliable operation of the spark gap, and with acceptable energy transfer to the transmitter secondary coil.
The other feature of the tank circuit was to minimise the inductance of the connections and components. The optimum condition is for all the current in the tank circuit to contribute to generating a magnetic field only within the primary coil itself, which maximizes the magnetic field coupling to the secondary coil. In practise magnetic fields are also created around the inductance of the tank circuit connections and components, storing some of the available tank circuit energy, and reducing the magnetic field generated within the primary coil. The inductance of the tank circuit components is kept minimum by keeping connection wires short and made from large many stranded conductors, by using copper busbars, and solid aluminium or copper mounting blocks for larger components. In the circuit diagram of fig. 2 the low inductance parts of the tank circuit extend from the spark gap to the primary coil and are indicated by thicker connecting wires.
Tuning indifference when powering a load
One of the most notable differences between the experiments in part 1 and 2, is that power dissipated in the both the single wire load and the receiver load varies only slightly with large changes to the transmitter and receiver primary tuning capacitor. The transmitter tuning capacitor was varied over the range 20-1200pF which in figs. 3.1 and 3.2 shows very large changes to the frequency spectrum of the TMT system. However when powered from a properly adjusted spark gap generator the bulbs in the single wire transmission medium remain well-lit over much of the tuning range. This is in stark contrast to part 1 where power dissipated or transferred in the various loads were very dependent on the tuning condition of the transmitter and receiver, and to the matching conditions of the VTG to the primary of the transmitter.
In fig. 4.2 we see that currents in the single wire transmission medium are much more impulse-like and consist of many narrow pulse excitations and rapid bursts. The spectral content of this time-domain signal will be very wide with energy distributed over a very broad-bandwidth, and consistent with the properties of the spark gap stimulus in the primary circuit. With such a wide bandwidth of frequencies present at the single wire load we would expect the bulbs to be illuminated irrespective of the tuning in the transmitter primary. Many frequencies are being transferred from the primary to the secondary circuit which is characteristic and typical of the properties of this experiment when driven from a spark gap based generator.
Given the above as a broad comparison with the experiment in part 1, tuning around the upper and lower resonant frequencies of the flat coil transmitter causes a slight increase in brightness for the single wire load, showing that more energy is selectively coupled at these frequencies from the generator as would also be expected from part 1, and from the frequency characteristics measured in figs. 3.1-3.4.
Reduced power in the single wire load and receiver load
The spread of energy over a very wide bandwidth results in less energy being dissipated in both the single wire load and also in the receiver load, as compared the single frequency oscillator experiment in part 1.
1. In the case of the single wire load, the bulbs can still be lit to almost full brightness since all the power from all transferred frequencies is being dissipated in this load. The bulb brightness showing the average power dissipation over many bursts coming from the spark gap generator. At an input power of 300W to the HV supply it was possible to illuminate the single wire load to around two-thirds of its maximum rating, so ~45W. At 500W the load could be illuminated fully to ~60W.
2. In the case of the receiver load, much less power could be coupled into this load even when tuned correctly as a complete TMT system, as shown in figs. 3.3 and 3.4. The single wire load had to be first removed to prevent power dissipation at this load, and then the receiver load could be illuminated to maximum ~0.5 of its total power e.g. about 25W. From the wide-band of frequencies available in the single wire transmission medium only a very narrow range at the resonant frequency of the receiver flat coil are transferred from the single wire to the receiver load. It should however be noted that the receiver bulb loads where illuminated dimly over the entire tuning range of the transmitter primary and the receiver primary. This again shows that a little of that wide bandwidth of energy is coupled to the receiver irrespective of the tuning, again tuning indifference based on the spectral content of the source energy.
In this case the spark gap generator is far from optimal for the transference of electric power, where for the same input power as in part 1, less energy is transferred to the single wire load, and very much less energy can be transferred to the receiver load. This proves to be the case even when the TMT system is optimally tuned as shown in figs. 3.3 and 3.4, and by further comparison with the optimal tuning results in part 1 of this experiment.
Tesla radiant energy and matter phenomena
These phenomena form some of the most interesting and unusual aspects of this TMT experiment using a spark gap generator. Whilst these effects can also be observed in the same experiment using a single frequency oscillator, linear amplifier, or other oscillating source they are much reduced in intensity when compared with a spark gap generator, burst oscillator, pulse generator, or properly designed and operated impulse or displacement generator. The exploration of these phenomena in this experiment is only as an introduction to these effects, and properly requires a much more detailed experimentation and consideration, which will be presented in a subsequent post along with very much magnified phenomena results.
The preliminary phenomena observed in this experiment include:
1. Attracting metals to the surface of an incandescent bulb in the single wire cavity, where the bulb acts as an emitter of radiant energy.
2. Amplification or intensification of a radiant energy event by interaction with a living organism, (human hand).
3. Charging a capacitor with radiant energy by bringing it close to the emitting bulb.
4. Radiant matter pressure waves emanating from the emitting bulb and impacting on a living organism, (human hand).
It should be noted here that improving the uni-directional pulse nature of the generator system by, for example, including components such as 1B22 spark gap modulator tubes in the tank circuit, early magnetic quenching of the spark discharge, or other impulse/pulse/burst generation methods, considerably magnifies the observed phenomena. It is also important to note that these types of phenomena are best observed when a cavity has been established using a resonant transformer, such as a Tesla coil, and where a longitudinal pressure wavefront is established within the cavity, preferably in an LMD type mode, or ideally with direct displacement.
Summary of the results and conclusions so far:
The transference of electric power experiment using the tuned TMT flat coil system has produced considerably different results when powered using a spark gap generator, as compared with the single frequency feedback oscillator in part 1. The key differences and results include the following:
1. Tuning indifference occurs due to the wide spectral bandwidth of the energy transferred from the generator to the final receiver load, and impacting on all parts of the TMT transmission system between these points.
2. Considerably reduced levels of transferred electric power both to the single wire transmission medium load, and the receiver load, for the same nominal input power to the HV supply of 300W. Again this is attributed to the diffuse spectral energy content when a wide bandwidth generator is connected to a narrow bandwidth high-Q TMT transmission system.
3. Tank circuit tuning configurations have shown that a de-tuned primary and secondary resonant frequency in the transmitter primary leads to the best balance between transferred electric power, and stable, consistent, and long-term reliable operating conditions.
4. Radiant energy and matter phenomena have been observed in the experiment, and indicate components and optimizations, including different generator configurations, that will intensify and maximise these unusual observations.
5. Generator configurations and types that improve the impulse/pulse/burst nature of the transferred energy may intensify radiant energy phenomena by generating a more uni-directional pressure wavefront in longitudinal system, which may also provide additional insight into the preliminary investigations into the displacement of electric power.
The results for the transference of electric power in the near-field using a spark gap generator indicate that this form of generator is not well suited for energy transmission in the narrow bandwidth high-Q TMT system. A very large and robust spark gap generator would be required to transfer adequate power from generator to load, with considerable losses at the spark gap, huge electromagnetic interference to the surrounding medium, and invasive and unstable operating conditions. However this form of generator does appear to lend itself to phenomena that arise from the longitudinal pressure wavefront generated in the cavity of a resonant transformer, such as a Tesla coil. As such it is conjectured that this form of generator may be useful in the exploration of displacement, the hidden underlying coherent guiding principle of the undifferentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction.
Click here to continue to the next part, looking at High-Efficiency Transference of Electric Power.
1. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.
Some of the most fascinating areas of research into the inner workings of electricity, are those that display unusual and interesting phenomena, and especially those not easily understood and explained by mainstream science and electromagnetism. The field surrounding Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, the apparatus, experiments, and wealth of unusual electrical, and even non-electrical related phenomena, is a particular case to note. This first post in a sequence serves as a practical and experimental introduction to this area, along with consideration and discussion of the observed phenomena, and possible interpretations as to their origin and cause.
It is through working to understand these types of phenomena, often generated in high tension, unipolar, and non-linear electrical systems such as the Tesla coil and TMT transmission system, that the inner workings of electricity can be revealed little by little. That is to say, the outer workings of electromagnetism that account for almost all of those measurable electrical properties that constitute the transference of energy, and hence electric power, between source, load, and the intervening transmission medium, can be peeled back to show a more fundamental, coherent, and guiding mechanism.
This second inner level of electricity’s mechanism and working I consider to be based on the principle of displacement, a coherent and dynamic state extending throughout the common medium, and where the electric and magnetic fields of induction are defined but as yet undifferentiated in their nature. These two undifferentiated facets we can only suppose originate from a yet deeper and hitherto unexplored level of inner workings, where the pressure applied by the one and only force of intent leads to the manifested universe, and all that is both known and unknown.
The differentiation of the electric and magnetic fields of induction lead to the outer manifestation of electricity as we commonly know it, transference, and all the electromagnetic properties and scientific measurements that accompany it, including, for example, the speed of light c in the vacuum, which only currently has a fixed and defined value based on the level it is measured and perceived at. At this outer level of transference, c is measured as a specific value based directly on the inter-action (propagation) of the differentiated electric and magnetic fields of induction. I conjecture that at the next inner level where these fields of induction are defined but not differentiated, that c has not only different measurable quantities, but also comes with qualities and properties that make it a multi-faceted vibration, rather than the simple linear measure of a fixed value.
It should be clear to the reader that in my interpretation of this field of research I see it as not enough to construct experiments, observe phenomena, measure quantities, and then try to fit this to a linear and physical way of thinking about the world, as is the case in mainstream science, and often even in the alternative approaches. I consider progress in this field of research to be a co-operation or union between high-quality science, and a more philosophical or esoteric understanding of the principles and processes of life. Only through new practical knowledge gained through this inclusive approach to life will it be possible to fully reveal, perceive, and utilise the inner workings of progressively deeper levels of electricity.
Such are my conjectures about the inner workings of electricity even at only the next inner level, that as of yet is an unknown mystery to both mainstream science, and the alternative electricity researcher alike. It is for this reason that I find experiments surrounding Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and associated phenomena, so fascinating, exciting, and awe-inspiring, as they provide an opportunity to progressively take a look “under the hood” at the world of displacement, a hidden world yet to be discovered. A world much more vast in its import and effect than that which we currently observe, understand, and utilise.
Fig. 1. Tesla Patent 685957 - Apparatus for the Utilization of Radiant Energy.
In Tesla’s original patent of 1901, No. 685957, he describes his understanding of radiant energy gained from experimentation and observation, and suitable apparatus for utilising this radiant energy:
“My own experiments and observations, however, lead me to conclusions more in accord with the theory heretofore advanced by me that sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter which are strongly electrified, and therefore capable of charging an electrical conductor, or, even if not so, may at any rate discharge an electrified conductor either by carrying off bodily its charge or otherwise.”
“When rays or radiations of the above kind are permitted to fall upon an insulated conducting body connected to one of the terminals of a condenser, while the other terminal of the same is made by independent means to receive or to carry away electricity, a current flows into the condenser so long as the insulated body is exposed to the rays, and under the conditions hereinafter specified an indefinite accumulation of electrical energy in the condenser takes place. This energy after a suitable time interval, during which the rays are allowed to act, may manifest itself in a powerful discharge, which may be utilized for the operation or control of mechanical or electrical devices or rendered useful in many other ways.”
It is clear from Tesla’s own description that he saw radiant energy as a ray or beam-like emanation, that is capable of transferring energy between the emanating source, and a suitably arranged receiver. Under these conditions an electric current could be established when the radiant energy is accumulated in a capacitor and connected to an electric load.
Tesla also states that a suitable time interval is required to allow the rays to generate an action upon the receiver. Tesla conjectures that radiant energy causes minute particle to be thrown of at great velocity, both making a link between radiant energy and matter, and implying that a force can be exerted not only electrically but also physically on a distant body.
In my own experiments into radiant energy I have observed similar phenomena to those described by Tesla including, charging of capacitors from longitudinal wavefronts generated in the single wire cavity of a TMT system, electrical and physical forces exerted on conductors, insulators, and biological specimens placed in proximity to a source of radiant energy emanations, and electric currents and discharges when load circuits are connected to a condenser charged by radiant energy.
The following video introduces the apparatus, experiments, and phenomena that are most often attributed to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and which have been successfully demonstrated in the prior art by researchers such as Dollard et al.. The apparatus used in my video can be readily constructed by a competent electrical engineer, showing that experimenting and researching this fascinating area is accessible to any open-minded individual with the fortitude to undertake an experimental path of discovery regarding the inner workings of electricity. The video demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:
1. The difference in powering a load with a conventional closed-circuit from the primary coil of a spark gap generator, and a single wire from the Tesla coil secondary.
2. The change in properties observed in the load in a single wire with load position, generator matching, and changes in the single wire cavity length.
3. The force exerted on different materials as a result of radiant energy/matter emanating from an incandescent lamp emitter in the single wire load.
4. The different responses of materials to radiant energy emanating from the lamp emitter.
5. The radiant matter pressure wave emanating from the lamp emitter, as experienced by the human hand.
6. Discharge “plasma-like” emanations directly from the lamp emitter to the surrounding medium.
7. Vibration and physical movement stimulated in the lamp filaments when radiant energy interacts with another object in the surrounding medium.
8. Cool lamp glass temperature when emanating considerable light from the lamp emitter, a so-called “cold” electricity phenomenon.
9. Radiant energy charging of a capacitor, accompanied by subsequent discharge in a neon lamp load, showing a “cool” white-bluish discharge, and a violent snapping sound.
10. An initial consideration of the inter-relationship between the longitudinal and transverse modes of electricity in the single wire load.
11. The transformation of energy from the longitudinal mode to the transverse, and the dissipation of this energy as power in the single wire load.
Figure 2 below shows the schematic for the generator and experimental apparatus used in the video. The high-resolution version can be viewed by clicking here.
Fig. 2. Schematic diagram for the apparatus used to demonstrate Tesla's radiant energy and matter experiments and phenomena.
Figure 3 below shows the secondary pulse burst at the single wire load measured using a 40kV high voltage probe whose input terminal is placed closed to the load via a short fly-lead. The fly-lead was initially connected directly to the load but caused some interference and erratic operation to the measurement equipment, as shown in the video. This erratic operation results from transient current spikes induced directly through the probe connections to internal circuitry, and cross-coupled amongst the various earth connections in the equipment line-supply. Individual ferrite chokes can be used on the measurement instrument line supply cables to prevent this undesirable cross-coupling. In this case the fly-lead of the probe was simply disconnected from the load but left in close proximity to the measurement region, which had no detectable impact on the measured results, but sufficiently reduced the unwanted interference to allow for correct instrument operation.
Fig. 3. Secondary coil pulse burst measured using a 40kV probe at the single wire load, and showing the strong initial transients during the spark discharge, and followed by the secondary oscillating ring-down.
It can be seen from the secondary pulse burst that transients in the single wire during the initial spark discharge are large in amplitude, (up to 40kV in voltage magnitude, and 100s of amps in current magnitude), and resemble impulse-like spikes with very short life-times, densely packed in time, and with very short duty cycles. These transient impulses give rise to both sinusoidal oscillations in the resonant circuit of the secondary, and as expected for a Tesla coil or TMT apparatus, stimulate generation of the characteristic longitudinal wavefronts in the cavity of the secondary circuit. As considered in previous posts, the longitudinal wavefronts themselves could result from the coherent spatial inter-action between the electric and magnetic fields of induction in the LMD mode, and where the coherent aspect is the direct consequence of underlying displacement events.
It is conjectured, and explored here, that high-energy transient impulses, that are ideally unidirectional in nature, and characterised by very large amplitudes and very short life-times, stimulate through non-linear processes electrical events or an imbalance in the system that needs to be, and can only be, rebalanced by the underlying coherent process of displacement. The product of this momentary exposure to displacement, (or an inner-working of electricity), is emission of the rays or beam-like emanations Tesla referred to as radiant energy, which in-turn give rise directly to the unusual electrical phenomena observed in the experiment. It is to be conjectured that the observed radiant energy emanations are directly the consequence of a displacement event taking place in the non-linear dynamics of the local electrical system.
With this conjecture stated the various experimental observations shown in the video will now be considered with the objective of determining their possible source or cause, and in order to get a better qualitative understanding of the underlying principles and processes involved. It should be noted that real experimental results, observations, and perceptions are being conjectured here into a possible underlying explanation, which will need considerable further consideration and experimentation to test, verify, and draw reliable and robust conclusions as to the validity of the considered conjecture.
Transference of electric power in closed and open-circuit systems
The dissipation of power in an “open-circuit” or single wire load is a very characteristic phenomena which can be readily observed and measured in almost any Tesla coil geometry and configuration. A suitable resistive load such as an incandescent lamp can be made to illuminate brightly when connected by a single terminal to either end of the Tesla coil, and the other terminal of the lamp has a small wire extension or fly-lead added. Without this fly-lead the lamp is at the very termination of the single wire and it will not illuminate or dissipate power.
This single wire power dissipation can be observed irrespective of how the Tesla coil primary is energised, whether it be from a sinusoidal linear amplifier or oscillator, a burst discharge from a spark gap, or a pulse generator. In other words, provided the primary and secondary coils are arranged to couple sufficient energy between them it does not matter whether this energy is from a single frequency linear sinusoid, a burst discharge envelope, or a set of non-linear transients, pulses, or impulses, it is possible to dissipate this coupled power within a resistive load placed in the single wire extension of the secondary coil.
It can be seen in the video that the lamp load could not be made to illuminate when connected to output taps on the primary side of the Tesla coil, even on the “HI” Oudin extension terminal. The tension on these primary side terminals is high, about 1kV on the LO, 2-4kV on the MID, and up to almost 10kV on the HI terminal. There is also a wide range of frequencies in the pulse burst due to the spark discharge in the primary circuit, so the output of these primary terminals is certainly a high tension RF burst discharge. This RF burst looks very similar in envelope shape and structure to that measured in the secondary, with the major exception that the oscillation within the burst envelope is dominated by the primary circuit characteristics, whereas in the single wire it is dominated by the secondary coil circuit characteristics.
Given all of this the lamp load will not illuminate and dissipate power when connected by a single wire extension to the primary side terminals, and yet will readily illuminate when connected by a single wire extension to the secondary coil. The only way found to illuminate the load when connected to the primary side terminals is to complete the circuit by connecting the single-wire extension back to the primary ground terminal, making a normal closed-circuit system.
A very similar example to this would be powering an incandescent lamp when placed across the output terminals of an oscillator, or even better in the coaxial transmission line between the output of an amateur radio transmitter tuned to transmit say in the 160m HF band (~2 Mc), and a half-wave dipole antenna at the far end of the coax. When the coax is connected on both terminals (circuit-closed) the lamp will light and dissipate some of the power from the transmitter dependent on the impedance it presents within the circuit, with the remaining power being radiated from the antenna and consumed by the coax. When either terminal of the coax is removed (open-circuit) the lamp will not light and no power is dissipated in either the lamp, or delivered to the antenna.
This most simple, and yet profound difference, between powering a load from the primary and secondary circuits of a Tesla coil, where both coil outputs are high tension and contain considerable RF energy, suggests a fundamentally different mechanism of electrical transmission and/or dissipation of power in the two cases. In the primary the system behaves exactly as one would expect for a conventional electrical circuit, and can be measured and calculated precisely in the case where a linear sinusoid is applied to the circuit. If we reduce all electric circuit characteristics to the inter-dependent relationship of the electric (or dielectric) field of induction (Ψ), and the magnetic field of induction (Φ), and their inter-action with material type, form, and structure, then it should be clear that there is a fundamental difference in the relationship, or mode of inter-action, between these two induction fields within primary circuit and the secondary circuit.
In the closed-circuit case the configuration of Ψ and Φ lead to voltages and currents distributed in time around the circuit that are transverse in nature and where the phase relationship between them is distinctly defined by the impedance elements, (boundary conditions), distributed in the overall system. In this case or mode Ψ and Φ are fully differentiated, non-coherent, not in-phase either spatially or temporally, and only becoming temporally in-phase in the transverse electro-magnetic (TEM) mode for far-field propagation.
In the open-circuit or single wire case and to dissipate power in a load it is necessary for the configuration of Ψ and Φ which are still fully differentiated, to be coherent, that is in-phase spatially and temporally. This can be accomplished through the longitudinal mode, or the LMD mode as it is known, where both Ψ and Φ are locked in phase alignment with each other, and form a combined traversing wavefront within the cavity, generating an electrical pressure wave ahead of the combined wavefront.
In this case local changes of impedance on the single wire, such as the filament of a lamp, lead to power dissipation at the pressure wave through local generation of instantaneous voltages and currents within the impedance change, and hence power dissipation, light, and heat. It can be seen that rms current decays in magnitude along the length of an open-circuit terminated single wire longitudinal cavity, rather than stay constant as would be expected for a transverse mode circuit. With the lamp as the termination of the single wire cavity it will not light as the local current in the wire end has reduced to zero, and no power can be dissipated in the load in the transverse mode.
In summary for now, the most basic Tesla coil presents a fundamentally different power transmission mode at the secondary coil, that is irrespective of how it is energised in the primary circuit, and is most likely longitudinal in nature, and results in the phenomena of single wire transmission of power.
Attractive and repulsive forces
The video shows a range of different materials mounted in a pendulum-like arrangement, that when brought in to close proximity to the single wire lamp load emitter, experience an attractive and in the case of certain materials, an additional repulsive force. The attraction of a material can be almost instantaneous on application of the emitter power, or in some cases can take a period of “charging” time to reach a sufficient level to pull the material towards the surface of the emitter. In most material cases the sample is retained on the surface of the lamp for a period of “discharging” time before being released from the surface after the emitter power is turned off. The responses of the different materials to radiant energy and matter emanations from the lamp are as follows:
Aluminium – attracted towards the emitter over a distance of up to 20mm with an electrical power level at the lamp of ~40W, (power present at the emitter lamp is estimated based on its relative brightness when illuminated at 100% of its nominal rating of 25W). 10mm at ~20W was demonstrated on the video, and this material is readily retained on the emitter surface after power off. No repulsion events were observed with this material.
Copper – both attracted and repulsed from the surface of the lamp at a distance of ~8mm at ~20W. This material is more gently attracted to the emitter but is more unlikely to be retained on the surface. The most observed phenomenon is that the copper in coming into contact with the lamp glass is then repulsed quite strongly from the surface rather than being retained on the surface. The repulsion has a defined force rather than a simple falling-away or bouncing off of the glass surface. The attraction and repulsion at the correct distance from the emitter leads to a sustaining mechanical oscillation of the pendulum.
Acetate (cellulose) – not attracted towards the emitter even at distances <1mm at up to 50W of emitter power. However at much high powers >100W with a different lamp, very small movements have been possible in the region of ~1mm from the lamp surface. Slow to attract over the distance, and very quick to release, implying very low pull force, and very low charging effect.
Biomatter (fresh and dried) – in this case both a fresh and dried leaf sample were strongly attracted to the lamp over a distance up to 20mm at ~20W. This material gives the most instantaneous response to emitter turn-on with very rapid movement to the lamp surface. This material is also barely retained on the lamp glass after emitter turn-off, being almost as quickly released as it is attracted to the surface. No repulsion events were observed with this material.
Cardboard – in this case the cardboard is very old originating from the original inner box of a Weston 425 meter, and showed good attraction up to 5-10mm at ~20W. This material is not retained on the lamp glass after emitter turn-off, and no repulsion events were observed with this material.
Clearly from this experiment it can be seen the emanations from the lamp emitter result in a physical force exerted on the material. This physical force is attractive for all of the materials, including the acetate, but varies very widely in scale based on the material type. Surprisingly the biomatter exhibits the strongest attraction, followed by the metals, all the way down to the insulator with only very small attraction at much higher powers. Only the copper shows a sustained repulsive force but only after an attractive event has first pulled the material to the surface of the glass of the lamp, almost as though an inversion occurs at the surface contact and the material is then repelled away. There is no situation where a material has been repelled away from the lamp at turn-on without first being attracted to the surface.
By studying the nature of the experiment it does at first appear like a “charging” effect. Emanations or wavefronts emitted from the lamp emitter cause negative charge accumulation at the surface of the material, where the degree of surface charging depends on the material type, its “impedance” to the emanations, and the material conductance. If this where the case it would be similar to an electrostatic force where two or more materials are attracted or repelled by the difference in their surface state charge.
It has been suggested that the attractive force is magnetic in nature stemming from eddy currents generated in the material by the incident emanations. I have not so far been able to demonstrate this since the introduction of a strong bar magnet into the experiment makes no difference either attractive or repulsive to the material under test. The material still behaves as indicated above, and at the same power levels and distances, irrespective of the magnets influence on the experiment. However, this is not to say that the magnetic field of induction Φ is not involved in this process. This can also be partly supported by the observed sustained current through a neon lamp load in the capacitor charging part of the experiment, which could suggest that both Ψ and Φ are present within the nature of the radiant energy emanation.
At an empirical level this would appear to make sense, if the radiant energy is an emanation resulting from a displacement event at the emitter, and the displacement event involves the undifferentiated Ψ and Φ acting in temporal and spatial coherence, it would correspond that the emanation from this event is in phase, longitudinal in nature, and forms a forward moving unidirectional wavefront of “electrical pressure”. In this way this emanation conveying both Ψ and Φ when incident on materials within the transmission medium could stimulate an electric, magnetic, or a combination response from the material. This stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.
As a coherent pressure wave its transmission over distance may be very large, transferring energy from the pressure wave to incident materials in the surrounding medium, or even becoming self-sustaining with distance through amplification from suitably arranged material forms and apparatus. The velocity of the pressure wave needs to be considered and suitable apparatus for its measurement arranged, however in the coherent state as an emanation from a displacement event it is considered possible that energy is displaced between source and load at velocities exceeding c the transverse electromagnetic speed of light in the vacuum.
In summary, radiant energy like emanations very similar to Tesla’s original observation in his patent, can be observed from a suitable load, (impedance change), placed in the cavity of a single wire transmission medium. These emanations are conjectured to be the product of coherent underlying processes which stimulate a range of different responses from incident materials. The emanations are conjectured and discussed to be directly the product of displacement events generated by longitudinal electrical pressure imbalance at the single wire load.
Low temperature light emission and “cold” electricity
In Lindemann the term “cold electricity” was used to describe experiments and observations by Gray (via Valentine), based on light emitted by incandescent lamp loads, which was not accompanied by the normal rise in temperature expected from this type of resistive load, but rather the lamp had a cool glass surface when emitting “full power” illumination. Gray further demonstrated this by illuminating to full power an incandescent lamp submerged in cold water, which would ordinarily lead to fracture of the lamp glass. In the case of illumination by “cold electricity” no such fracture damaged was observed over sustained illumination periods.
In my experiment with incandescent lamps in the single wire load it was observed that the temperature of the lamp was quite low, and could comfortably be touched or held by the human hand after sustained illumination, equivalent to illumination at a full input power of 25W. This was compared to a control lamp, (same 25W pygmy make and style), powered from the normal line supply. After the same period of illumination where both lamps appeared the same brightness, the lamp in the single wire could be easily touched and held, whereas the control lamp was too hot to touch without causing a burn to the skin.
It appears likely from this experiment that the light being observed in the single wire lamp is, at least in part, emitted by a different process than the control lamp. Continuing the consideration from the previous section, and looking at the response of different materials to radiant energy emanations, it is possible to imagine that the filament of the bulb as a material that radiant energy is impinging upon, has its own unique and specific response to the coherent pressure wave emanation. In this case the response of the material to the radiant energy is to emit electromagnetic radiation in the form of light, which was not entirely generated by the resistive heating of the filament from the electrical current flowing in the single wire.
In a normal transverse and closed electric circuit case an incandescent lamp will generate light as emission from a resistive heated filament, where the colour temperature of the light is based on the filament material and temperature. Heat from radiation and conduction through the gas in the lamp heats the outer lamp glass to a temperature more than sufficient to cause sustained burns to biomatter. In the single wire lamp load light appears to be emitted through the filament response to the coherent longitudinal wavefront, which does not result entirely from resistive heating of the filament. Since the lamp does warm a little there is most likely a combination of processes going on, so some light emanation from radiant energy coherent processes, and some transverse current resistive heating in the filament.
This implies that there is a combination of the longitudinal and transverse electrical transmission modes within the single wire. It follows that improvement of the experimental system and boundary conditions could lead to a reduced transverse component, and a more pure longitudinal pressure wave in the single wire cavity reducing the heat emitted from the load to a level comparable to that observed by Gray in his experiments. In this case we would expect the temperature of the single wire lamp load to reduce from slightly warm to very cool, or even to cold in optimal experimental conditions and apparatus. Optimal conditions here means firstly reducing the transverse components within the single wire, which implies establishing the stable balance of Ψ and Φ boundary conditions in the complete system across the generator, primary, secondary, and cavity. And secondly it requires an increase to the uni-directional impulse like nature of the stimulus, where the increased non-linear inter-action between Ψ and Φ results in more displacement events and hence stronger emanations from the emitter.
In summary, it is considered that radiant energy emanations on the filament result in emission of light which is in part not as a result of resistive heating of the filament, which shows a similar result to that reported by Gray and considered by Lindemann. Improvements to the experimental apparatus and operating conditions should result in an increase in this phenomena, and will also help to confirm the validity of the conjectures made regarding displacement and radiant energy. It should be noted here that whilst I understand the label of “cold electricity” given to this phenomena, I find that the process conjectured here as being responsible for this phenomena is definitely not a “cold” principle. “Cold” in these terms implies the absence of something or something separated, in this case the energy to elevate the temperature through transverse dissipation, whereas I consider the emission of radiant energy, and the filament material response to that emission, to be an inclusive process which involves the coherent inter-action of both Ψ and Φ. Thus phenomena and emanations resulting from displacement are inclusive in nature, involve all parts of the system and medium in dynamic balance, and imply a sense of warmth, wholeness, and completeness.
Radiant energy accumulation and charge storage
In this experiment a capacitor is electrically charged by radiant energy emanations, showing energy transferred from the single wire emitter, accumulated in the capacitor, and then discharged through a neon bulb in the form of a spark discharge. In many ways this a similar consideration to the section on attractive and repulsive force, only additional accumulation can occur due to the capacity and storage of energy on the capacitor, which persists for much longer time intervals after the radiant energy emitter has been turned off.
An interesting observation to note from this experiment is that during the “charging” of the capacitor a smaller single wire circuit, or tributary from the main cavity, is created in the form of the capacitor in close proximity to but not touching the lamp, a wire connected to the other terminal of the capacitor, and a neon lamp load connected to the end of this wire. The active region of the neon lamp appears in the cavity tributary where there is also a short lead out of the neon lamp acting as the short fly-lead at the end of the single wire cavity, and ensuring there is a small but non-zero single wire current in neon load. During the charging stage the neon bulb lights continuously showing a single current flow down the tributary, and the transient like nature of the accumulating tension on the capacitor.
When the capacitor is adequately charged the main single wire load emitter can be turned off, and the charged capacitor and tributary circuit removed from the vicinity of the main experiment. The charge of the capacitor is retained over considerable time without any part of the circuit being closed with the neon bulb. When the circuit is closed the stored energy discharges rapidly through the neon bulb, with a characteristic snapping sound, and a bright bluish white discharge light in the neon bulb. The nature of this spark discharge shows that there is considerable tension on the capacitor, in fact it can be measured using a high voltage probe to be up to ~10kV, and considerably more than the maximum rating of the capacitor, (in this case 4kV). Unusually the capacitor appears unaffected by application of this overall tension across its terminals, and can provide a rapid and high-current discharge through the neon bulb.
In summary, energy can be stored in a tributary single wire circuit incorporating a capacitor as an accumulator, when a radiant energy pressure wave is incident on one terminal of the capacitor. The experimental arrangement used with the load attached by single wire to the other terminal of the capacitor, and kept open-circuit during charging demonstrates the possibility of the formation of single wire tributary cavities, which extend off the main cavity. In some ways this is similar in analogy to the “fern” discharge effect demonstrated by Dollard, when exploring extra-coil discharge phenomena with a pair of cylindrical phase-locked TMTs.
Radiant matter pressure on biomatter and reaction forces
In this experiment I placed my fingers close to and around the single wire lamp emitter but not touching, and not close enough for a high tension discharge to occur between the filament and my fingers. It was clear to experience a vibrating pressure exerted on my fingers in similar accordance to Tesla’s observation that “… sources of such radiant energy throw off with great velocity minute particles of matter …”, Tesla. This radiant matter appeared to exert pressure on my fingers, or at least the experience of pressure waves as if being struck by waves of minute particles.
In addition to this I observed, and can be seen on the video, a reactionary force exerted on the filaments of the lamp emitter so that they would move permanently into another position, or else oscillated around a median position until filament breakage or becoming stuck to the inside surface of the lamp glass. Either way the movement of my fingers around the glass of the lamp resulted in both the experience of an exerted physical force on them, and simultaneously a reactionary force exerted on the filaments.
Although Tesla was clear about the nature of these “great velocity minute particles of matter”, I am not convinced of this explanation in this experiment, but rather that the experience is similar to that observed in the section on attractive and repulsive forces, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently inter-acting to form an emanation where again the stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.
Longitudinal and transverse mode coupling, or transformation, in a single wire cavity
This is a complex topic but one that needs to be initially considered here if we are to move toward a proper understanding as to the principles of transmission that take place in a single wire conductor, its relationship to the transverse and longitudinal mode, and ultimately the underlying stimuli and inner workings of electricity, displacement, and radiant energy.
In experiments and discussions thus far the Tesla coil or TMT system has been considered to form a cavity in the secondary circuit, where single wire transmission medium phenomena can be easily observed and measured. It has been suggested by others[2,3] and conjectured by myself that the single wire open-circuit nature of these phenomena, is a result of the longitudinal mode of transmission in the cavity created within the TMT system, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently locked in phase, creating an electrical pressure wavefront that traverses the cavity between boundaries, being reinforced by successive oscillations from the primary, and either transferring the power to a distant load in the primary of a receiver, or dissipating the energy in the wavefront within a load of different impedance within the single wire cavity.
The frequency of this longitudinal mode is expected to be different from the transverse resonant frequency of the Tesla coil secondaries for both the transmitter and receiver coil in a matched and tuned TMT transmission system. Whilst impedance measurements on a TMT with a vector network analyser, reveal in minute detail the transverse mode inter-action of the various resonant circuits making up the overall system, it appears to show nothing of the properties of the longitudinal mode which lay outside of its measurement paradigm. The concept of a longitudinal wavefront where both Ψ and Φ are temporally and spatially in phase does not currently exist in modern electromagnetism, and there is not an instrument currently available for probing this mode and condition.
Still the question stands of how it is possible to dissipate power in a single wire load in a longitudinal cavity. To start to address this we must consider the coupling between modes in the local impedance change of the load. Whilst the longitudinal mode of transmission dominates in the single wire cavity, energy and hence power can be transferred to distant loads, with in principle very low loss. To dissipate as power in the single wire load, rather than transfer the energy in the longitudinal mode, a coupling or transformation to the transverse mode must occur, generating local voltage potential difference and local currents in the load, which in turn are consumed as power in the resistive load, such as the filament of an incandescent lamp. I conjecture that it is this transformation process between modes that is characteristics of a single wire transmission medium, and allows for loads to be powered in an open-circuit condition, something that would not be possible in classical electric circuit theory or practice.
Radiant energy as emission from a displacement event
Further to this transformation between the longitudinal and transverse modes in the open-circuit single wire conduction model, it is conjectured and to be explored as a central concern in this research that as the TMT system becomes more non-linear, and when properly arranged to be stimulated with high-power impulse transients, displacement events required to rebalance the local Ψ and Φ dynamics of the system give rise to radiant energy emanations. These emanations result in many of the observed phenomena presented in this post, and when properly arranged in timing, amplitude, and duration lead to a very wide range of perceptual phenomena that are both electrical and non-electrical in nature, and yet to be explored.
So it is maintained and to be explored that the ideal TMT system is one that is carefully balanced, matched, and tuned between the “transmitter” and “receiver” coils both for the longitudinal and transverse modes, such that the single wire transmission medium forms a low impedance, reciprocal, and high Q cavity, where Ψ and Φ are dynamically balanced and in equilibrium for the linear case. This ideal TMT system when subsequently powered by a highly non-linear, uni-directional, transient impulse generator of very high tension, will cause such large discontinuities in the local balance of Ψ and Φ that displacement, as an underlying guiding mechanism in the inner workings of electricity, will be called-forth to re-balance the local dynamics of the electrical system.
These displacement events generate emanations, or electrically based shock waves, that are themselves longitudinal in nature, where both Ψ and Φ are coherently locked in phase, creating an electrical pressure wavefront that emanates outwards from the primary event. the stimulated response of materials and forms which encounter the incident wavefronts may involve energy accumulation and storage, but also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical forces, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.
The creation of such an experimental system to test these assertions on displacement and transference, transformation of the longitudinal and transverse modes, and transmission of electric power to distant loads with very low loss, represents a challenge equivalent to surmounting a mountain higher than the highest yet ascended.
Summary of the results and conclusions so far
In this post we have experimentally observed a wide range of phenomena that are usually attributed to those related to Tesla’s radiant energy and matter, and which have also been demonstrated and observed by other significant research efforts, including Dollard et al.. It is clear from the experiments and observations that improvements to the TMT experimental system will facilitate a far more detailed and clear exploration of the underlying principles involved.
In considering the unusual observations of the experiment, and the accumulated understanding of the prior art through both my own collective work presented so far, and that of significant others[1-8], I have formulated a line of conjecture which combines both a philosophical and scientific approach towards the origin or source of these phenomena, and how that source could give rise, through fundamental principles and processes, to the materially observed effects of said experiments.
The formulated line of conjecture has the following key points:
1. The underlying origin or source of these phenomena resides in the inner workings of nature that, at the deepest conceivable level, is the result of the pressure of life’s intent, which in turn gives rise to the need for the natural and living world to evolve.
2. The inner workings of electricity, as a part of the inner natural world, includes the undifferentiated fields of electric and magnetic induction Ψ and Φ, which act as one together in a fully inclusive manner, and which I refer to as displacement Q. Dollard refers to a similar principle Q as the Plank, or total electrification, which for me reflects the same inner workings of electricity.
3. A displacement event is not normally observable in the differentiated dynamics of Ψ and Φ. This differentiation between Ψ and Φ, and all the implications of their temporal and spatial inter-action results in what science currently understands as the field of electromagnetism, and gives rise to all the phenomena that I refer to as transference.
4. A severe imbalance created between Ψ and Φ in a circuit system where the “need” or purpose of the circuit is clearly stated, and where equilibrium cannot be re-established through the process of transference, will call-forth the underlying guiding principle of displacement. The act of displacement coherently puts the differentiated Ψ and Φ into their proper temporal and spatial alignment, upon where transference can resume as the external and observable dynamics of electricity.
5. The result of a displacement event is to generate an emanation or shock-wave, which Tesla called radiant energy, that permeates the medium surrounding the displacement event, and extending out until all emanation energy is stored or dissipated by external transference of electric power.
6. The radiant energy emanation is a direct consequence and extension of the displacement principle, and equivalent to bursts of energy or electrification injected into the surrounding medium. Suitable collection or reception of this emanation, when introduced to a load suitable to balance the overall system, will make it possible to harvest this additional electrical energy for suitable means, provided the overall balance of the complete system and medium is not violated. This is similar to what Tesla referred to “… it is a mere question of time when men will succeed in attaching their machinery to the very wheelwork of nature”.
7. The radiant energy emanation where both Ψ and Φ are coherently inter-acting leads to stimulated responses from material and forms in the surrounding medium, where the stimulated response may involve energy accumulation and storage, and also dissipation of energy through exertion of a physical force, electromagnetic emission or absorption (light and dark), thermodynamic changes (temperature or pressure changes), or even perceptual changes of the surrounding medium.
8. The extension of radiant energy into the surrounding medium, and when incident on another open single wire circuit with established purpose, will constitute a tributary event, and transferring the same electrical event properties to the tributary, where the quantity of transferred energy is equivalent to the load or need of the tributary circuit.
9. The overall balance and natural order of the electrical system will be maintained through the inner workings of electricity and the principle of displacement, and can be observed and experimented with. Ultimately the energy generated through displacement can be utilised where the natural order and balance is preserved by the utilisation. This is equivalent to where the load represents a need that is inclusive to the system, then the system becomes regenerative, and can self-sustain with energy being supplied to all loads in balance.
This post has opened and exposed many further questions surrounding all of the observed phenomena, the need for much more measurement detail, further design of a more optimal experimental system, and most importantly the verification, or otherwise, of each and every one of the conjectures made to explain and understand what might be the source and mechanism behind Tesla’s radiant energy and matter.
In the next post in this series I will be take a look at improvements to the TMT experimental apparatus that may lead to more detailed and clearly defined measurements to support aspects of the formulated line of conjecture.
1. Tesla, N., Apparatus for the utilization of radiant energy, US Patent US685957, Nov. 5, 1901.
2. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.
Tesla used a range of different coil geometries throughout his experimental work, including flat, cylindrical, conical , and separated cylindrical secondary with an extra coil. Each of these different geometries present different advantages and different limitations, and hence it is important for any experiment using a Tesla coil or TMT system to choose a coil geometry best suited to the type of experiment at hand. Different experiments are designed to study different aspects of electrical phenomena and qualities including, displacement and transference of electric power, radiant energy and matter, wireless, single wire, and low-loss transmission, longitudinal modes and cavity effects, plasma and dielectric effects etc.
The electrical dynamics and properties of different Tesla coil geometries is a complex and involved field, and has been much explored both theoretically and practically in the prior art, and notably including Dollard[5,6] and Corum et al.[7,8]. In the first part of this post we review some of the most important experimental considerations for coil geometry that I have observed and encountered throughout my research so far. In the second part we take a look at a cylindrical coil design suitable for plasma effects and other discharge phenomena when combined with an extra coil, and similar to a design by Eric Dollard for his cosmic induction generator.
Figures 1 below show the final cylindrical coil design in a variety of configurations, including a TMT system for transference of electric power experiments, induction generator plasma experiments, and both driven using the Quad 811A tube board. The detail of these experiments, phenomena and measurements will be reported in subsequent posts.
Fig. 1.1 Transference of electric power experiments using a cylindical coil TMT system, drive from a Quad 811A vacuum tube oscillator, and tuned to dissipate all transferred power in the single wire longitudinal cavity.
Fig. 1.2 The cylindrical coil TMT system tuned to transfer electric power from the generator to the incandescant lamp load at the output of the primary at the receiver. A very small amount of power is also dissipated in the single wire longitudinal cavity load.
Fig. 1.3 The Quad 811A tube board is mounted on the tube supply heater and grid unit. The tube grids are driven via a feedback coil mounted axially to the transmitter cylindrical coil, which allows for very fine control of the oscillating frequency when the primary tuning capacitor or coupling is adjusted.
Fig. 1.4 The cylindrical coils moved closer together and rewired so that the tube generator drives both primary coils in push-push configuration. This drive method generates a intense compressed induction field in the region of the 200W incandescent bulb, and is suitable for a range of different plasma experiments.
Fig. 1.5 The induction generator arrangement is similar to Dollard's cosmic induction generator design, and when driven in a variety of different configurations including, push-push, push-pull, and in quadrature, both with and without extra coils, a range of different plasma phenomena can be observed within the bulb globe.
Fig. 1.6 Driven in push-push configuraiton by the generator an intense induction field is generated in the centre region between the secondary coils, and the plasma ignited in the lamp appears as purple-white and purple-orange flares. The flare dynamics and movement depend strongly on generator power and tuning.
Fig. 1.7 The neon indicators at the high-end of the secondary coil indicate the dielectric induction field tension, and are good visual indicator of the drive match of the two coils, and optimum tuning point. The plasma flair here is evenly distributed and characteristics of a reasonable balance between the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction.
Fig. 1.8 The tube supply with the Quad 811A tube board can operate continuously at an output power of 1200W, and peak outputs for short bursts of up to 1800W.
Coupling and Free Resonance
A Tesla coil can be considered to be a resonant air-cored transformer when excited by a linear sinusoidal drive to the primary coil. As such it is fundamentally important to ensure that as much energy as possible from the generator, is transferred from the primary coil to the secondary coil as quickly as possible, so the coupling between the two coils is maximised. At the same time, at least the secondary coil must be able to freely resonate according to the nature of its design and geometry, and with maximised quality factor and minimised resistive losses, requiring minimised coupling between the two coils. In some cases both the primary and secondary coils are arranged to resonate in tune with each other whilst maximising the resonant properties of the secondary. These two fundamental requirements of Tesla coils present a trade-off or balance that must be optimally struck in any TC design, and according to the intended application.
Maximising coupling of the primary and secondary implies tightly coupled coils which are in close proximity to each other, and that maximise the enclosed area of intersection of the magnetic field of induction, Φ. Increased coupling reduces the ability of the secondary coil to freely resonate at its fundamental resonant frequency, as it becomes increasingly driven by the primary, quenching the Q of the coil system, and tending towards a standard, magnetically coupled, non-resonant transformer.
The secondary coil on its own will freely resonate with maximum Q and impedance at the fundamental resonant frequency according to its design, geometry, and the materials used in its construction. As a primary coil is brought into proximity with the secondary the coupling starts to increase from zero and the properties of the two coils start to interact. With a non-zero coupling coefficient energy can now be transferred between the two coils, but the freely resonant properties of the secondary also start to change, influenced by the impedance characteristics of the primary, resonant or not.
The most optimum balance between these two requirements can be established in a separated secondary induction and extra coil arrangement, where tightly coupled induction can occur between the primary and secondary, whilst the free resonator properties of the coil system are maintained by the extra coil. This coil geometry is considered in more detail later in this post.
Field Distribution. Magnification and Compression
Magnification of the dielectric field of induction, Ψ, occurs from turn-to-turn of the secondary, starting from those turns most tightly coupled to the primary and enclosing the largest area of intersection with Φ from the primary. This magnification of Ψ is influenced by the geometry of the secondary through compression of the field distribution. In a cylindrical coil each turn moving away from the coupling region describes the same area and path length, which in principle leads to a uniform exponential increase in the magnification of Ψ.
In contrast, in a flat coil geometry each turn becomes smaller than the last as the turns move away from the outer coupling region. In this case Ψ is progressively compressed towards the centre of the coil increasing the magnification non-linearly towards the centre high-end of the coil, and leading to a highly non-linear dielectric induction field distribution. For the same number of turns Ψ is measurably higher towards the high-end in a flat coil, than for the same turn measurement in a cylindrical coil.
For coils designed to explore phenomena related to the imbalanced magnification of the dielectric field of induction Ψ e.g. attractive and repulsive forces, low temperature light emission and “cold” electricity, charge accumulation and storage, and “fern” effect discharges, then compression is particularly important in the geometry of the required coil. In this case a flat coil with many smaller turns to the centre, or a conical coil with turns concentrated towards the cone tip, are more suited to investigation of these kinds of phenomena.
Cylindrical coils, or separated secondary induction and extra coils, are better suited for experiments requiring a balance between Ψ and Φ e.g. for experiments in the displacement of electric power with a non-linear impetus, telluric and single wire transference of electric power in a TMT system, and plasma phenomena.
Charge Distribution, Conductor Volume and Surface Area, and boundary Conditions
If we consider the secondary coil to be a continuous metal conductor, at a typical resonant frequency between 10kc – 10Mc, then geometry effects considerably the charge storage and distribution across its surface. In the case of a flat coil the largest proportion of conductor is closer to the outer coupling region, and hence the distribution of charge on the conductor is biased towards the outer perimeter of the coil with less towards the centre. The effect of this is to electrically damp the resonant properties of the secondary towards the centre, so less energy can be stored and released in each resonant cycle, which in turn effects the amount of energy that can be coupled to the longitudinal mode within the cavity described by the secondary coil system.
In my own research I have found it to be critically important in coil design, for the purpose of investigating displacement events and their related phenomena e.g. radiant energy emissions, to ensure that we create a system which is best suited to sustain for as long as possible the coherent balance and continuity between the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction. In this way we so arrange our design to ensure that any generated displacement events occurring from or within the generator, from or within the medium conveying the electric power, and from or within any load thus designed to receive or utilise this power, will sustain the event for as long as possible and with amplitude such that it can be investigated and measured. Tesla suggested and established this requirement clearly, in that the conducting boundary conditions for Ψ and Φ must ensure the maximum balance, continuity, and coherence for these two inter-dependent fields when moving from one section of an electrical system to another. In this way he established that the requirement between the primary and secondary of a magnifying transformer should be made from equal volumes of conductor.
From further investigation by others, notably Dollard[5,10], where the density of the conductor in the primary and secondary is the same, (e.g. for a primary and secondary both with copper as the conductor), equal volumes of the conductors can be considered equivalent to equal weights of the conductors, and has been found to apply best when working at lower frequencies where the skin effect does not have a significant effect on the impedance of the conductor, e.g. when working with normal copper or aluminium conductors at a frequency < 3000kc. At higher frequencies where the skin-effect can dominate the impedance of the conductor, balancing the bounding conditions for the two fields of induction can be better accomplished by equal surface area of the conductors.
In any calculation of equal weights or surface areas of the system conductors it is necessary to consider the overall resonant system of both the primary and secondary. For example, if the primary is tuned by a vacuum variable capacitor then this and the inter-connection conductors must be added to the calculation. If the secondary coil includes a top-load e.g. metal toroid, multi-wave oscillator resonator, or other conductive arrangement this must also be added to the calculation for the secondary. Empirically any conductor that contributes to the resonant circuit of the coil needs to be factored into the equation.
It is also empirically suggested that this calculation is adequate for the dielectric field of induction Ψ, and that for complete continuity there must be a balance in magnetic materials as well. Normally magnetic materials are to be avoided or eliminated in the design of a TC in order to prevent reduction and/or distortion of the magnetic coupling between the primary and secondary, and parasitic inductive losses. If magnetic materials are deliberately placed in the design e.g. when using a magnetic disruptor to quench the primary spark gap, which also forms part of the primary resonant system, then this should be balanced out magnetically in the secondary load circuit.
Geometry and the Longitudinal Mode Cavity
One of the unique qualities of any TC geometry is that a longitudinal cavity is established between the outer boundary conditions of the secondary coil. The Longitudinal Magneto-Dielectric (LMD) mode has been considered both theoretically and experimentally in the prior art[10-12], and appears to develop within the secondary coil primarily as a result of the geometrical inter-action between the distributed inter-turn mutual inductance, and the inter-turn mutual capacitance. It is conjectured that the ratio and balance of this distributed inductance and capacitance determines the cavity properties, and hence the formation of a pressure wavefront, where Ψ and Φ establish and maintain a phase alignment to each other. The outer boundary conditions of the longitudinal cavity are dynamically defined, where significant electrical reflections from impedance mismatch will collapse the phase alignment between Ψ and Φ, and lead to dissipation of the LMD mode.
In a typical TC the boundary conditions of this longitudinal cavity usually occur at the top-load at the high or inner-end of the coil, and the low or outer-end plus any single wire extension, load in the single wire extension, and termination load at the end of the wire extension, whether this be open-circuit, ground, or other defined load. In a matched TMT system, as in my transference of electric power experiments, the longitudinal cavity can be extended all the way from the “transmitter” cavity through the transmission medium to the “receiver” cavity. In principle when the longitudinal mode is established stably in this cavity, electric power can be passed between the source and load over very great distances, (in the far field condition), and is considered to be a key principle in Tesla’s telluric transmission of wireless power.
The LMD mode of transmission forms as a standing wave between the transmitter and receiver coils of a TMT system. In successive cycles of the generator oscillations, electrical energy is coupled from the generator into the cavity. The pressure of the wavefront in the longitudinal mode moves backwards and forwards as it traverses the cavity from the transmitter to the receiver, reflected from the top load of the receiver and back again towards the transmitter where it is amplified or suppressed by coupling from subsequent cycles from the generator. Whether the longitudinal wavefront is amplified or suppressed depends on the tuning of the system and hence the longitudinal wavelength in the cavity.
At the correct point of tuning the amplitude of the wavefront is reinforced by successive cycles from the generator. The magnitude of this longitudinal wavefront reaches an equilibrium in the cavity based on the impedance characteristics of the cavity medium, its tuning, and dissipation of the stored power to both the transmission medium, and to the surrounding environment. The longitudinal wavelength within the medium is longer than that of the generator excitations, which represents a lower frequency of oscillation for the longitudinal mode. This puts the phase aligned Ψ and Φ wavefront at different phase relationships to any transverse components throughout the length of the cavity, a property of the longitudinal mode that can be measured in the cavity region.
At the correct point of tuning Ψ and Φ in the LMD mode form a standing wave in the cavity which results from the longitudinal wavelength, where the boundaries of the cavity are defined by the high impedance, high potential, points at the top-loads of the coils, and one or more null points form inside the cavity. At the fundamental frequency of the LMD mode, (not the same frequency as the fundamental resonance of the secondary coils or the generator oscillations), only a single null will exist in the centre of the cavity, and when the coils are closely spaced in the near-field. At higher order harmonics, and dependent on spacing between the coils multiple null points can form.
Empirically through observation and measurement in the various experiments in my research, and particularly in Transference of Electric Power, and Tesla’s Radiant Energy and Matter, a trade-off exists in the geometry of the coil, and the LMD mode. With tight and closely wound turns in a coil with significant magnification, and where height to width ratio > ~ 2, e.g. a conventional tall and narrow streamer coil, the LMD mode can easily be established within the secondary coil, but appears to diminish and tend quickly to zero in any single wire extension from the low end, even when the extension is left open-circuit, (complete wavefront reflection). In this case this type of coil geometry is unsuitable for transference of electric power experiments even in the near-field case. In the close mid-field region, (the boundary of which starts at approximately twice the secondary coil diameter), a TMT with reciprocal and transverse tuned transmitter and receiver coils, the power transferred through to the receiver load would be very low e.g. for 500W of power supplied from the generator only a few watts of power is available at the final load. In the far-field region the coils appear as unconnected from each other, even with a lower impedance single wire extension connected between both low ends of the transmitter and receiver secondary coils. In this geometry case telluric transference of electric power does not appear possible, even when the transmission medium is a relatively low impedance, (less than the combined impedance of the secondary coils at the transverse resonant frequency).
With loosely wound turns where the turn spacing is equal to or greater than the wire diameter, when the magnification secondary to primary turns ratio is lower e.g. 10-15 : 1, and where the height to width ratio is <~ 1, the LMD mode appears to have a lower intensity in the secondary coil, but can extend over very large distances and easily into the far field. In this case, and using a suitable flat or cylindrical coil TMT system the longitudinal mode can be extended across the entire cavity in any extent, near, mid or far-field. Substantial electric power can be transferred from the generator to the receiver load through a low impedance single wire extension, through a telluric channel, or other suitably arranged low impedance or resonant transmission medium, and as demonstrated in transference of electric power experiments.
Hybrid Coils and Turn layering
In some cases a combination of coil geometry, or hybrid coil, has proven to be the best choice for the experiment in hand. An example of this would be the flat coil originally demonstrated by Dollard et al., and used extensively in my own research and particularly in experiments on the transference of electric power, and telluric transference of electric power. In this flat coil geometry turn layering is used to produce two flat coil spirals closely spaced to each other, and providing a combination of properties from the flat and cylindrical designs. In particular the magnification of the coil can be increased, without damping the free resonant properties of the coil, and emphasising the compression properties that accentuate dielectric induction field phenomena.
Flat coils with turn layering up to as many as 5 layers can demonstrate excellent magnification and compression whilst retaining loosely wound turns and hence a good longitudinal cavity mode. Such a multi-layered coil is well suited to intense dielectric phenomena, such as Eric Dollard’s “fern” discharge experiment. The disadvantage of progressive turn layering is in the imbalance created between Ψ and Φ, and with each additional turn the rapidly increasing risk of breakdown at the winding return point. Whilst the longitudinal cavity in a TMT system appears to remain well established where a typical null point can be measured in transmission medium, the amount of power that can be transferred between generator and receiver load appears greatly diminished.
This reduction in transferred electric power is most likely as a result of the geometry imposed imbalance between Ψ and Φ, where Ψ has been significantly accentuated, and Φ has been suppressed by the hybrid and turn layered geometry. Maximum power transfer in a TMT system appears to occur when Ψ and Φ are maintained in dynamic balance, through optimal geometry of the TMT coils, transverse tuning to match the resonant frequencies of transmitter and receiver, and longitudinal mode tuning through obtaining a clearly defined standing wave within the cavity, (accomplished primarily through adjusting the electrical path length of the transmission medium to obtain a strong simultaneous null point for Ψ and Φ at the cavity centre).
Secondary Coil Induction and Extra Coil Resonance
This coil geometry and arrangement is probably the best for resolving the fundamental trade-off between coupling and free resonance, and appears to be Tesla’s own choice of system arrangement for large scale transmission of electric power. In this coil arrangement the induction between primary and secondary is separated from the free resonator or extra coil. This allows the primary and secondary to be tightly coupled and designed to maximise transfer of energy between the generator and primary coil and the secondary coil. The air-core of this primary-secondary induction transformer allows it to operate at a higher frequency than a conventional iron-cored power transformer, whilst retaining resonant properties that improve impedance matching to the generator. The tuned high or low input impedance presented to the generator through correctly matching this arrangement, allows optimal generator drive from a wide range of different source types, including linear sinusoidal oscillators, spark-gap discharges, and other transient and impulse generators.
In Tesla’s case this was driven through very powerful uni-directional disruptive discharges from energy stored in large tank capacitors, and charged by high voltage DC dynamos. In this case the primary-secondary induction transformer requires a very low input impedance, maximising impulse primary currents, which in turn produces very strong magnetic induction field coupling between the primary and secondary. In this case the secondary is arranged in close proximity to the primary, of the same diameter to maximise intersection of the magnetic field of induction, and the number of turns kept minimal to prevent magnification and compression of the dielectric induction field, whilst minimising electrical losses in the secondary, and preventing premature leakage of energy through discharges from the secondary high-end.
The high-end of the secondary induction coil is directly connected to the low-end of the extra coil. The extra coil can be considered in this arrangement as a free resonator, often physically displaced from, or orthogonal to the secondary coil, but can also be driven centrally on axis to the secondary as in Tesla’s Colorado Springs apparatus[5,9]. The extra coil in this arrangement has an optimal electrical length of λ/4, and when combined with the primary – secondary induction transformer, the complete Tesla coil geometry is a tuned system with length 3λ/4, or generally nλ/4 where n is an odd positive integer. When arranged in this fashion the extra coil produces considerable magnification as a free resonator whilst maintaining a good balance between Ψ and Φ. Interesting variations on the standard high aspect ratio, (tall and narrow for high magnification), cylindrical extra coil geometry, include conical and golden ratio designed coils.
Ultimately the optimal design of this geometry as a resonant magnifying transformer is resolved by impedance matching the various stages of the system from generator to primary, primary to secondary, secondary to extra, and extra to extension and top-load. If a cavity is to be generated at the low end of the secondary coil, then impedance matching from the secondary to the cavity, and any additional circuit elements in the cavity, is also important. This approach to Tesla transformer design is notably explored in the prior art by Dollard[5,12], and within my own research through looking at TC and TMT system impedance, tuning, and matching using a vector network analyser.
An interesting alternative consideration arises regarding Tesla’s intended purpose for the extra coil, when we take into account that the Colorado Springs apparatus was designed around 1900, and specifically to be driven by powerful impulse disruptive discharges. When the extra coil is arranged to resonate at the third harmonic of the secondary induction system, and where the quality factor (Q) of the extra coil is very high, the output from the top-end of the extra coil will be a very powerful, low distortion, sinusoidal oscillation at a single frequency. This form of output is ideally suited to radio transmission as the carrier wave, and has been selected from a wide spectral bandwidth discharge.
The multitude of frequencies contained within a disruptive discharge are highly unsuitable for radio transmission due to the interference created across bands, and the large amount of energy dispersed across the spectral bandwidth, as demonstrated by the early spark-gap radio transmitters used in the very early 20th century. High power single frequency oscillators for radio transmitters became standard with the development of the vacuum tube in the early 20th century, but before this, and at the time of the Colorado Springs research, Tesla had found a unique way to create a powerful single frequency carrier wave from a wide-band disruptive discharge generator. As an alternative interpretation of his work at this time, the extra coil was ideally suited to both select and tune the output of a very high power transmitter to a single frequency.
Coil Geometry Comparison Summary
Flat Coil (loosely wound with 2 layers): Good compression and magnification of the dielectric field of induction, generally suitable for transference of electric power experiments as a TMT system with a secondary to primary turns ratio around 20:2. Shows moderate dielectric induction field phenomena such as attractive and repulsive forces and capacitor charging. Maintains a good longitudinal cavity for LMD experiments when correctly tuned, and the efficiency for the transference of electric power appears moderate around 60%+ when carefully tuned in the transverse modes, and balanced to maintain a longitudinal null point at the centre of the single wire transmission medium.
This coil geometry gives a good general purpose experimental base, the imbalance in Ψ and Φ due to the compression of Ψ limits the efficiency in power transfer, but yields a range of interesting phenomena. Can be readily matched in the primary circuit to either a linear sinusoidal oscillator or a spark discharge generator.
Cylindrical Coil (loosely wound): Best geometry to maintain the balance between Ψ and Φ, and hence highest efficiency in the transference of electric power experiments. In the near to mid-field with correct tuning and balancing efficiency can be > 90%. In a coherent arrangement where the longitudinal mode is established across the entire TMT system from generator to load it may, in principle, be possible to establish 100% displacement of electric power from source to load, although this remains a work in progress to demonstrate and validate.
When combined with an extra coil into the Colorado Springs experimental arrangement, and with suitable Telluric tuning and matching, then far-field longitudinal transference of electric power may also be possible, and appears to remain one of the ultimate goals of this field of energy research. In my research so far I have measured far-field Telluric power transfer, (at ~ 3 miles between transmitter and receiver), of around 10dBm in the 80m amateur band from the upper resonant frequency of a carefully tuned TMT system.
The cylindrical coil geometry, again due to its well balanced Ψ and Φ, and with a secondary to primary turns ratio between 20:2 and 20:3 also appears best suited to plasma based experiments, such as Dollard’s cosmic induction generator design. This geometry also forms a good induction pump for a wide range of extra coils. A conical extra coil added to a cylindrical coil induction generator greatly improves the compression and magnification of this geometry, accentuating Ψ, and yielding good dielectric induction field phenomena.
When mounted on separate support structures the primary and secondary can be moved and positioned relative to each other, which gives free and variable adjustment over the coupling between the primary and secondary coils. In a TMT system where the coupling can be adjusted in both transmitter and receiver, very fine balancing can be accomplished between coupling and primary tuning, and hence the possibility for increased transference of electric power efficiency.
Streamer Coil (tightly wound): A high aspect ratio tall and narrow cylindrical coil which is usually more tightly coupled to the primary. This geometry has excellent voltage magnification, and when combined with an accumulator at the high or top-end of the secondary coil can achieve considerable energy storage at very high potentials. Most often used for discharge streamer entertainment, or as a high frequency, high voltage power supply in research, this TC geometry can reach many MVs of voltage magnification and deliver many kWs of power continuously.
Due to the tight coupling and huge magnification, dielectric induction field phenomena can be very strong in this arrangement. Longitudinal cavity phenomena and the LMD mode appear to be small in this arrangement, that is, they can be so small as to easily go undetected. This coil geometry is unsuitable for transference of electric power, and experiments where a balance and tuning needs to be maintained between Ψ and Φ.
Golden Ratio Geometry
This is a particularly interesting geometry and could lead to a wide range of interesting phenomena yet to be explored. The golden ratio (GR) is very widely treated in the prior art and the following references constitute further reading on this subject[13-15]. From the perspective of TC and TMT systems the golden ratio can be conceived in a variety of different ways, including the aspect ratio for any of the coil geometries, and in particular the cylindrical and/or extra coils that can have there height to width ratios according to GR, the wire diameter to turn period according to GR, the primary coil as a spiral defined on GR proportions, and the electrical length of the primary, secondary, and extra coils according to GR, and even the ratio between the longitudinal and transverse modes (including the cavity ratio) according to the GR.
It is conjectured that perhaps the most interesting GR relationship would exist directly between Ψ and Φ, which could be arranged through geometry, tuning, and generator and load characteristics. This area of research and investigation requires considerable further work, and remains work in progress at this time, and to be reported at a future point.
Displacement, Non-linear Dynamics, and Geometry
There is a very important distinction to be made in this area, which for me results from the sum total of my research so far, and all the experiments, observations, and measurements that have accompanied this journey. I would assert that Displacement and the observable phenomena that are emitted through the principle and mechanism of displacement e.g. Tesla’s Radiant Energy and Matter, do NOT originate as a result of the coil geometry of the experimental system. To clarify, I conjecture that displacement is an underlying coherent principle and mechanism within the inner workings of electricity, and that it is a displacement event that gives rise to the emission of various phenomena, including radiant energy. Displacement seems to be most effectively revealed by driving the experiment in a non-linear or transient fashion e.g. from a cylindrical TC with moderate coupling, driven by an impulse or disruptive discharge generator of at least a moderate power e.g. > 500W.
Therefore I am discriminating between displacement events and their associated phenomena, and the different properties of Tesla coils and TMT systems that result from the difference in balance between the differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, that are brought about by varying coil geometries. Said in yet another way, Tesla’s Radiant Energy and Matter, and other coherent electrical phenomena are not the product of coil geometry, but rather underlying coherent processes that constitute the inner, and as yet unexplored, workings of electricity. Whilst this conjecture may be difficult for some to acknowledge without considerable additional supporting evidence and results, something my research is actively engaged in acquiring, it would appear to me completely as common sense that there are underlying processes of a coherent nature that emit coherent forms of phenomena. These coherent phenomena are as yet manifestly unexplained by even the best current understanding of transference, which arises from the differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction, and which constitutes electrical properties relating to common circuit characteristics and transmission.
This said, coil geometry and careful design are most important in balancing or preferentially accentuating Ψ and Φ. The relative balance or imbalance of Ψ and Φ, which results from a particular coil geometry and experimental system arrangement, results in a specific coil geometry being better suited to different types of experiment e.g. a flat coil for dielectric induction phenomena, a cylindrical coil based TMT system for maximum transference of electric power and plasma effects, Tesla’s Colorado Springs TMT system for far-field telluric transference of electric power etc.
The distinction between geometry based phenomena, and displacement based phenomena can be directly compared and contrasted when the TC or TMT system is driven by a linear sinusoidal source, or a non-linear transient impetus. The non-linear transient impetus will reveal displacement based phenomena related to the undifferentiatedcoherent induction field. The linear sinusoidal drive will reveal phenomena related to the balance of the differentiated induction fields Ψ and Φ, through the balance between the transverse and longitudinal modes, and the tuning and boundary conditions of the longitudinal cavity established in the system. Transverse tuning is about selectively coupling as much energy as possible from the generator to the transmitter, and from the receiver to the load, whereas tuning of the longitudinal cavity and its properties, is about transferring as much energy as possible between the transmitter and receiver.
In summary, this is a vast, and probably one of the most fascinating areas of electrical phenomena, that arise from Tesla coil based systems, and warrants considerable further research, observation, and measurement. Suffice to say for now, I would conjecture that the distinction between the undifferentiated and differentiated induction fields, is in my view key to discriminating between phenomena that relate to displacement (coherent and inner), and those that relate to transference (incoherent and outer). For me the purpose of the Tesla coil is very much as a fine tunable instrument with which to experiment, observe, and measure qualities that will progressively reveal the inner nature and workings of electricity.
For further exploration and discussion on what is presented on this page, please see the Energetic Forum.
Cylindrical Coil Design and Construction
This cylindrical coil was designed to be suitable for plasma experiments including induction generator arrangements, transference of electric power, and as a suitable induction pump for various extra coil configurations. The secondary coil was intended to have its fundamental resonant frequency, the lower frequency when coupled with the primary coil, in the 160m amateur band between 1.8-2.0Mc, and the upper frequency as close to, or tunable into, the 80m amateur band at 3.5-4.0Mc. For induction generator experiments it was decided to keep the diameter of the secondary coil close to that originally designed by Dollard.
The period of the turns in the secondary was kept at the empirical boundary of 2 x the outer conductor diameter of the secondary wire, which appears to maximise the Q of the secondary coil, whilst maintaining good coil longitudinal cavity properties by not excessively loading the inter-turn mutual capacitance of the windings. The wire for the secondary is the many stranded outer shield of RG316 coax, in order to minimise losses in the secondary coil through the skin effect, whilst maximising secondary conductor surface area. The outer diameter of RG316 is 2.5mm, and turn period of 5mm was empirically set as optimal for the intended experimental applications.
When driven by a primary with coupling coefficient to the secondary of ~ 0.1-0.3 the lower resonant frequency can become shifted down from the resonant phase change, set by the wire length, by as much as 500kc, and the upper resonant frequency shifted up by as much as 1500kc. This being the case then the resonant phase change of the secondary, from the wire length, would be set at around 2.2 – 2.3Mc. This will arrange with primary tuning, and adjustment of the coupling coefficient, for the lower resonant frequency to be well within the desired 160m band, and the upper to be close to and tunable into the 80m band.
Tccad 2.0 was used for a rapid and approximate indication of the electrical and resonant characteristics of the secondary coil, the detailed results of which are shown below in figure 2. The parameter “Winding Height of Secondary Coil” on the turn period of 5mm, (“Wire Diameter” 2.5mm + “Spacing Between Windings” 2.5mm), was used to adjust the number of turns in the secondary until the “Approximate Resonant Frequency” and “Secondary Quarter Wavelength Resonant Frequency” were closest to the desired 2.2Mc.
The secondary was arranged to be 24 turns in total, 23 RG316 coax turns + 1 1/8” copper tube shield and capacity turn. This turn is spaced further away from the end of the coax turns to reduce the possibility of high-end discharge to lower turns, and is also intended to shield distortions to the dielectric field of induction at the high-end of the secondary, and particularly when operated in close proximity to another cylindrical coil or extra coil. The shield turn presents a uniform continuous metal conductor surface at the high-end of the coil, with a more uniform charge distribution, and to a limited degree providing some accumulation at the top-end without excessively loading the resonant frequency of the secondary. This capacity turn is included in the resonant frequency calculation on Tccad as it directly impacts the wire length and hence the resonant phase change of the secondary coil.
The primary design was intended to fully fit inside the secondary for maximum coupling experiments, reducing the outer diameter of the primary to 390mm. This does introduce a distortion in the magnetic field of induction as compared with a primary the same diameter as the secondary, and standing-off a physical distance below the secondary bottom-end winding. For the intended experiments the primary was set as a fixed 4 turns of 1/8” copper tube on a turn period of 9mm, and which have 4 fixed taps, and of course a variable tap can be used on the bare copper tube for very accurate tuning adjustments if needed. The fixed taps allow the primary coil to be electrically varied between 1 and 4 turns.
In this case where the intended experiments are firstly plasma phenomena, it was more important to have easily adjustable taps to flexibly change the primary characteristics, than maintain the need for equal weights of conductor in the primary and secondary coils. Even if the copper turn is not electrically used in the current path of the primary, the electrically unused copper places boundary conditions on the fields of induction, and hence must be factored in for experiments that require this balanced boundary condition from equal weights or volumes of conductor e.g. in achieving very high efficiency in the transference of electric power, and for establishing a strong and extended longitudinal LMD mode in the secondary cavity.
For reference, the equal weights of copper (< 3.0Mc) from primary to secondary calculation is as follows:
Secondary wire length for the 23 turns of RG316 coax = 32.52m
Measured unit weight of RG316 outer braid only: 6.150 kg/km
Secondary RG316 wire weight = 6.150 x 32.52 / 1000 = 0.200 kg
Secondary wire length for the 1/8” copper tube single turn = 1.41m
Measured unit weight of 1/8” copper tube: 50.3 kg/km
Secondary 1/8” copper tube weight = 50.3 x 1.41 / 1000 = 0.071 kg
Total conductor weight of secondary coil = 0.271 kg
Primary wire length per turn @ 390mm diameter = 1.23m
Primary turn 1/8” copper tube weight = 50.3 x 1.23 / 1000 = 0.062 kg
Number of turns in the primary required to equal the secondary coil weight: 0.271 / 0.062 ~ 4.4 turns
If we now factor in the weight of the vacuum variable capacitor copper plates and interconnection of the primary to this capacitor, which constitute the parallel resonant circuit of the primary:
Total approximated weight of copper in the capacitor plates and interconnections ~ 0.125 kg
Number of turns in the primary required to equal the secondary coil weight, (including primary resonant circuit):
(0.271 – 0.125) / 0.062 ~ 2.4 turns
Two to three turns of the primary is considered an optimum match to the mid-range tuned position of the vacuum variable capacitor at ~ 600pF, and with a coupling coefficient between primary and secondary of ~ 0.2. The primary inter-connections are made from copper plate, and 8 AWG (1600/0.08) micro-stranded silicone coated wire. The same wire is used to connect both primary coils to the generator for push-push, push-pull, and quadrature drive, and forms a good low impedance, low inductance connection for power transfer between the generator and the primary coils.
Figures 3 below show some of the construction features of the cylindrical coil design, including the support frame interleave arrangement, the secondary coil windings, the primary coil taps and tuning capacitor mounting, and the primary circuit inter-connections.
Fig. 3.1 A single cylindrical coil with the primary and secondary coils fully closed in together. The primary coil fits inside the secondary coil for experiments requiring tight coupling.
Fig. 3.2 The primary and secondary can be moved to any position relative to each other, which allows for variable adjustment of the coupling between the coils. The primary tuning vacuum variable capacitor is mounted to the primary support frame, and moves with the primary as coupling and distance are adjusted.
Fig. 3.3 The primary consists of 4 turns of 1/8" copper tube which has input taps on each turn. The input taps allow the electrical characteristics of the primary to be easily varied according to the requirements of the experiment and generator.
Fig. 3.4 The primary taps are selected using 4mm terminal connectors and allow the primary to be run from 1-4 turns, forward or backward spaced from the secondary. This primary coil is suited to plasma experiments where equal weights of conductors does not need to be considered.
Fig. 3.5 The power inputs to the primary are via the red-black 4mm high voltage terminals in the centre. This connection method is suitable both for small signal BNC fed impedance measurements, as well as and power driven using a linear amplifier and oscillator. This input arrangement is less suitable for spark discharge or impulse generators where input potential can be much higher.
Fig. 3.6 Low-inductance primary connections are arranged using copper straps, and AWG 8 silicone coated micro-stranded wire. The wire has 1600 filaments of AWG 40 nickel coated copper wire, and has good high-frequency impedance characteristics. The inter-connection wires provide flexibility to easily change and select input taps.
Fig. 3.7 The secondary is 23 turns RG316 outer coax sheath + 1 turn 1/8" copper, making 24 turns in total. When coupled to the primary coil, the secondary coil has a fundamental lower resonant frequency in the 160m amateur band at ~ 1.9Mc. The bottom-end of the secondary is connected to 4mm high voltage terminals for single wire transmission medium connection.
Fig. 3.8 The secondary coil is wound on 12mm nylon66 formers which have 2.5mm wide slots, 1.25mm deep, and with a slot period of 6mm. The outer copper screen turn passes through each of the 12 formers, which are retained at the correct diameter at their outer end by a transparent acrylic disc.
Fig. 3.9 Each turn of the secondary is tensioned using a tie-wrap around the bottom nylon former. This retains the tightness of the secondary windings, and maintains a uniform, consistent and stable distance between the windings across the diameter of the coil.
Fig. 3.10 The support frames for the primary and secondary coils are designed to interleave with each other to bring the coils into very close proximity if required. Both are screwed and glued together to retain rigidity and squareness when they slot together. Both frames have support platforms for additional components e.g. the tuning capacitor for the primary coil.
Fig. 3.11 The diameter of the coils at the outer end are maintained by transparent acrylic bands that are milled from single sheet on a circular feed. This outer diameter support is minimally invasive to the high-tension end of the coil, whilst providing maximum visiblity of the coil, and an aesthetically pleasing design.
The overall design and construction of this cylindrical coil provides a simple yet versatile Tesla coil which can be used in a range of different experiments, including plasma phenomena and as an induction generator, and transference of electric power in a TMT system. By extending with extra coils, or by specifically designed primary coils e.g. equal weights of copper, or a Golden Ratio spiral, the useful range of experimental phenomena can be extended to include high efficiency transference of electric power, and telluric transference of electric power in the far-field. The detail of these experiments, phenomena and measurements will be reported in subsequent posts.
Click here to continue to cylindrical coil input impedance – TC and TMT Z11 measurements.
1. Tesla, N., System of Transmission of Electrical Energy, US Patent US645576A, March 20, 1900.
2. Tesla, N., Experiments with alternate currents of very high frequency and their application to methods of artificial illumination, American Institute of Electrical Engineers, Columbia College, N.Y., May 20, 1891.
3. Tesla, N., Nikola Tesla on his work with alternating currents and their application to wireless telegraphy, telephony and transmission of power: an extended interview, 1916 Interview – ISBN 1-893817-016, Twenty First Century Books, 1992.
4. Tesla, N., Apparatus for Transmitting Electrical Energy, US Patent US1119732A, January 18, 1902.
5. Dollard, E., Condensed Intro to Tesla Transformers, Borderland Sciences Publication, 1986.
6. Dollard, E., Theory of Wireless Power, Borderland Sciences Publication, 1986.
7. Corum, K. & Corum, J., Tesla Coils and the Failure of Lumped-Element Circuit Theory, TCBA News, Vol. 19, No. 2, 2000.
8. Corum, K. & Corum, J., RF Coils, Helical Resonators and Voltage Magnification by Coherent Spatial Modes, TELSIKS University of Nis, Sept. 19-21, 2001.
9. Tesla, N., Colorado Springs Notes 1899-1900, Nikola Tesla Museum Beograd, 1978.
10. Dollard, E. & Brown, T., Transverse & Longitudinal Electric Waves, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.
11. Dollard, E. & Lindemann, P. & Brown, T., Tesla’s Longitudinal Electricity, Borderland Sciences Video, 1987.
12. Dollard, E., A common language for electrical engineering – lone pine writings, A&P Electronic Media, 2013.
13. Herz-Fischler, R., A Mathematical History of the Golden Number, New York: Dover, 1998.
14. Huntley, H., The Divine Proportion, New York: Dover, 1970.
15. Bogomolny, A., Golden Ratio in Geometry, Cut the Knot, 2018.
16. Forum Members, Eric Dollard Official Forum -> Eric Dollard, Post #2819 onwards, Energetic Forum, 2020.
In this post we take a preliminary experimental look at the transference of electric power using a cylindrical coil TC and TMT, energised using a linear amplifier generator, and also the high power transfer efficiency that can be achieved in a properly matched system. The setup, tuning, and matching of the linear amplifier is covered in detail in the video experiment where a 500W incandescent lamp can be fully illuminated at power transfer efficiencies over 99% in the close mid-field region. The power is shown to be transferred to the receiver through a single wire between the transmitter and receiver coil through the longitudinal magneto-dielectric mode, and not through transverse electromagnetic radiation or through direct transformer induction. This high-efficiency, very low-loss transference of electric power is possible as the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction are contained around the single wire.
It is also demonstrated that more than 500W of power can be transferred through a single wire no thicker than a human hair, a 40AWG (0.08mm or 80 microns) nickel plated copper wire, where the power transfer efficiency could be measured up to 100% according to the limits of experimental accuracy of the measurement equipment. Power transfer of this order through such a thin wire is again possible as the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction are contained or guided around the single wire. Removal of the single wire from the receiver end prevents any power transfer to the receiver, which shows that when driven by a linear sinusoidal generator, a lower impedance transmission medium, (in this case the single wire), is needed to guide the induction fields between the transmitter and receiver coils. The experiment presented in this post is the preliminary starting point for a more detailed and extensive study of power transfer efficiency over greater distances in the mid-field region with much longer single wires, and in the far-field with a Telluric transmission medium.
The video experiment demonstrates and includes aspects of the following:
1. Linear amplifier generator setup, matching, tuning, and operation to drive a cylindrical TC and TMT system.
2. Measurement and confirmation of the series and parallel modes of resonance for a balanced TC, against the Z11 impedance results, using the generator exciter and an oscilloscope.
3. Transference of electric power from the generator exciter unit, to a single wire transmission medium incandescent lamp load up to 120W.
4. Transference of electric power from the linear amplifier generator to a 500W incandescent lamp load at the TMT receiver output, and subsequently to two parallel 500W lamp loads.
5. Longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) mode measurement through central null with a fluorescent lamp, and mode interference patterns with an ultraviolet lamp.
6. Transference of electric power efficiency measurements up to 99% using an AWG12 single wire between the TX and RX coils.
7. Efficiency measurements up to 100% using an AWG40, 80 micron (0.08mm), 60cm long, single wire between the TX and RX coils.
Video Notes: The maximum calculated power transfer efficiency when using the 12AWG single wire in the video was 99%, and not 99.6% as stated in the video. During the introduction the small signal input impedance characteristics Z11, are displayed for a short period in preparation for the subsequent presented linear amplifier setup. These characteristics can also be viewed in Fig. 3.1 below.
Figure 2 below shows the experimental system circuit diagram, followed by an overview of the linear amplifier generator components. Click here to view the high-resolution version.
Fig. 2.1 The experimental equipment and apparatus used in the video experiment, including the linear amplifier generator, transmit and receive power meters, and the cylindrical coil TMT system with different connection options.
1. The exciter is a Kenwood Trio TS-430S 100W HF amateur radio transceiver. This era of transceiver has digital frequency synthesis, a semiconductor power amplifier, AM and FM modulation, and is easily modified to extend its capabilities. In this case it has been modified to transmit on all frequencies across its tunable range, which makes it into a high-power, up to 120W, bench-top signal generator with modulation capabilities. The transceiver system is not connected to any elevated radiating antennas, and hence will not cause out-of-band interference.
2. The exciter is connected directly to a Kenwood TL-922 1kW linear amplifier which is a vacuum tube based, (dual Eimac 3-500Z), HF power amplifier. This linear amplifier has π-network matching circuits on both input and output. Slightly out of band operation prevents running this linear amplifier at the full 1kW when in the fully matched condition. The output of the linear amplifier is connected through an MFJ-804D digital power and SWR meter to monitor the match at the output of the linear amplifier.
3. The output of the SWR meter is connected to a Palstar AT5K 5kW antenna tuner which handles the impedance transformation from the 50Ω output of the linear amplifier to the ~ 7.5Ω input resistance RS. The AT5K is a T-network matching unit, with input and output continuous variable capacitors, and a continuous variable roller inductor. In balanced output mode a internal 4:1 balun is present at the output of the unit, which further extends the range of possible impedance matching. This unit is capable of tuning a very wide impedance to the 50Ω system impedance, and is required for safe and optimum performance of the linear amplifier when driving TC and TMT systems.
4. The output of the AT5K can be switched to bypass which connects to a Palstar DL2K 2kW 50Ω dummy load which is used to initially tune the output of the linear amplifier for maximum power output at the exciter frequency. When this is completed the AT5K is switched back to balanced tuned output connected to the primary circuit of the transmitter cylindrical coil. Between the output of the AT5K and primary coil is a Bird 4410A Thruline power meter with a 450kc – 2500kc 10kW slug, for measuring the real power actually supplied to the transmitter primary. Between the output of the receiver primary circuit and the 500W incandescent lamp is a second Bird 4410A Thruline power meter with the same rated slug.
In measurements for high-efficiency where the final result is a ratio of the output power to input power, calibration of the key measurement instruments becomes critically important to ensure the highest levels of accuracy and confidence in the measured results. In this case the Bird Thruline power meters at the input and output primary coils were calibrated simultaneously inline with each other, with the actual slugs to be used during the experiment, and on the range that was to be used to make the efficiency measurements. The calibration procedure was as follows:
1. 500W of output power was provided from the linear amplifier generator simultaneously through the two Bird watt meters in series and terminated at the Palstar dummy load. Interconnections were kept to short BNC cables.
2. Both watt meters were first zeroed and then set to scale 10, which for the 10kW 450-2500Kc slug with element factor 100, results in a meter full scale reading of 1000W.
3. With 500W of power provided from the generator to the dummy load both watt meters were adjusted to read the same needle position on the meter scale at 500W. The operation was repeated multiple times with the power being turned-off and reapplied to confirm.
4. The series connection of the meters was then reversed to average out any insertion losses, and step 3 repeated to confirm agreement of the readings, with very slight adjustment to the calibration of each meter for optimal agreement in both steps 3 and 4.
In this way the meters were both calibrated for 500W input power direct comparison on a single range, and with a limit of experimental error of <0.5%. Due to the analogue nature of the meters, readings during the experiment needs to be done carefully and repeatedly in order to minimise errors due to estimation of the needle position when in-between minor graticule marks. It was determined overall that power efficiency measurements can be made by this method within an error limit of ±1%.
Figures 3 below show the key Z11 impedance measurements that relate to different configurations of the experimental apparatus that were used in the video experiment, along with a consideration of their analysis and characteristics relating to the most important phenomena.
Fig. 3.1 The small signal input impedance Z11 for the transmit cylindrical coil with a 100W incandescent load in the single wire extension at the bottom end of the secondary coil. The primary tuning capacitor has been adjusted to Cp = 506.8pF to balance the upper and lower parallel modes.
Fig. 3.2 Here the transmit and receive coils have been joined by a single wire transmission medium at the bottom ends of the secondary coils, and the tuning capacitors in the transmit and receive primary circuits have been adjusted to balance the parallel modes across tthe complete experimental apparatus. There is no load connected to the receiver output.
Fig. 3.3 Here the TMT single-wire transmission medium includes a 100W incandescent lamp load. The load has reduced the Q of the cavity between the transmit and receive coils, reducing the intensity and clarity of the parallel resonant modes across the system, and hence reducing the LMD mode coupling between the transmitter and receiver.
Fig. 3.4 Here the 100W incandescent lamp load has been removed from the single-wire cavity and connected to the output of the receiver. The Q of the system has been reduced considerably, and primary tuning adjusted slightly to rebalance the merged parallel modes.
Fig. 3.5 Here a 500W incandescent lamp load is connected to the output of the receiver. This low resistance load, with inductive component of the filament in the lamp, makes a considerable difference to the charactersitics of the system. The quality factor of the system remains high at the transmitter, but has been suppressed at the receiver, unbalancing the reciprical nature of the TMT cavity.
Fig 3.1. Shows the small signal input impedance Z11 for the starting point of the experiment, (also shown on the video), for the transmit cylindrical coil only with a single wire extension that includes a 100W incandescent load. The impedance characteristics consist of the three key points, as explained in detail in the post Cylindrical Coil Input Impedance – TC and TMT Z11. In this experiment the linear amplifier generator was initially tuned to marker M2 the series mode resonance at 2.19Mc. After confirming the Z11 measurements, using an oscilloscope to maximise the voltage output of the secondary, the generator was set at 2.20Mc for the start of the practical experiments. Markers M1 and M3 are the parallel mode resonant points for the transmit Tesla coil, at 1.89Mc and 2.68Mc respectively. In this case the parallel modes have been balanced between the primary and the secondary, in order to maximise coupling through the series mode to the parallel modes, and hence from the generator to the LMD mode in the cavity formed in the secondary coil and single wire extension. The series resonant mode at M2 is suitable for driving the coil using a linear amplifier as the input impedance is minimum, 12.5Ω @ 2.19Mc, which can easily be matched to the power amplifier output impedance of 50Ω, via the Palstar antenna tuner with a 4:1 output balun.
It is interesting to note from the video experiment that the oscilloscope confirmation and measurement of the resonant modes of the Tesla coil is strongly dependent on the matching network used between the generator and the primary of the coil. In the simple case where the exciter was connected to the primary through direct bypass of the antenna tuner, (direct drive), the fundamental series resonant mode could be measured very clearly at 2.14Mc, but the parallel modes could not be identified at all in the measurement. This method is commonly used to measure the Tesla coil series resonant frequency, but completely masks the parallel modes from measurement, leading to an incomplete and ultimately inaccurate characterisation of the properties of a Tesla coil. It should also be noted that the measured maximum voltage peak on the oscilloscope at 2.14Mc does not completely correspond to that measured in the Z11 characteristics of 2.19Mc. In this case where no consideration of input impedance matching has been taken into account the basic oscilloscope measurement yields incomplete and inaccurate measurement results, and whilst gives a close estimate of the best frequency point to drive the Tesla coil, does no yield the optimum frequency and conditions for maximum transference of electric power.
When the same measurement is repeated but with a tuned matching network between the exciter and primary coil, ( in this case the balanced and tuned T-network in the Palstar), the oscilloscope measurement closely matches the Z11 characteristics. Both parallel modes and the series mode can be measured accurately at the correct frequencies, and the initial starting point was again set to 2.20Mc. The difference in the two measurements is a clear example of why it is important to carefully match the output impedance of the generator to the input impedance of the Tesla coil, and this is even before we consider the optimum and maximum transfer of electric power. To maximise power transfer and obtain the highest efficiencies it is crucial to minimise power reflected from the primary circuit to the generator.
Fig 3.2. Here the transmitter and receiver coils are coupled together with a single-wire transmission medium to form a TMT system. No load is placed in the single wire, and no load is attached to the output of the receiver primary. This represents the highest quality factor, unloaded, characteristics of the system, and combines four parallel modes (M1, M3, M5, and M7), and three series modes (M2, M4, M6) together. The TMT system has been carefully balanced using the primary tuning capacitor in the both the transmitter and receiver to match the impedance of the parallel modes across the system. Balancing of the parallel modes in this way appears to contribute significantly to maximising the LMD mode in the cavity through coupling maximum power between the TEM and LMD modes between the primary and secondary coils in both the transmitter and receiver. A more detailed analysis of this TMT system has already been presented in post Cylindrical Coil Input Impedance – TC and TMT Z11 – Fig. 2.1.
It should be noted that the fundamental series resonant mode at M4 has remained constant at 2.20Mc, and for the type of linear amplifier generator being using in this experiment, is the best frequency point to drive the TMT system. At M4 the input impedance is at its minimum and is purely resistive at 7.85Ω, and is well within the matching range of the Palstar antenna tuner with a 4:1 balun at the output. Tuning to drive at M4 is also the most stable part of the Z11 characteristics, which is most determined by the the reciprocal wire lengths of the secondary coils. It is possible to also drive the TMT system using this generator at series mode points M2 and M6. Whilst this will preferentially couple energy into different aspects of the parallel longitudinal modes, the characteristics of these points in impedance are highly dependent on the primary tuning of both coils, and the loading conditions in any part of the TMT system, in the single-wire, at the output of the receiver primary, or even in proximity to other lower impedance structures. Driving the system at unstable positions M2 and M6 would require a lot of continuous tuning adjustments, and inevitably having to run at a higher SWR during experimental operation. For experiments across the characteristics of the parallel modes it is recommended to use a series feedback oscillator which is covered in detail in the second section of post Cylindrical Coil Input Impedance – TC and TMT Z11.
Fig 3.3. Here the TMT system of the previous figure has had a 100W incandescent lamp load added in the single-wire cavity between the transmitter and receiver. The characteristics remain essentially very similar, although the Q of the system is reduced significantly by the resistive component in the cavity. The fundamental series resonant mode at M4 has only shifted down in frequency by ~10kc to 2.19Mc, however the input impedance of the system has now increased to 19.1Ω based on the transformed down additional resistance of the 100W load in the secondary cavity. The tuning of the primary capacitors has been adjusted to maintain a balanced condition between the parallel modes. The biggest impact of adding a load in the cavity is to damp-down the parallel modes, and hence reduce the purity of the LMD mode formed in the cavity of the TMT system.
For clarity, the cavity extends between the top-end of the transmitter secondary, through the single wire transmission medium and load, and up to the top-end of the receiver cavity. Power is transferred from the generator through the primary circuit, and to the secondary primarily in the series TEM mode, which is further coupled to the parallel modes in the both the primary and secondary coils, and hence into the LMD mode across the cavity. Power is coupled out at the receiver through the reverse process from the LMD mode to the receiver parallel modes, and into the series TEM mode in the primary circuit. It is a condition of an LMD coupled TMT system that the frequency of the LMD mode < TEM mode. The LMD mode can be maximised by maximising the parallel modes in the coils which includes:
1. Specific and careful arrangement of the coil geometry (e.g. a balanced cylindrical coil), windings number, ratio and spacing, and coil materials.
2. Tuning of the parallel modes to balance the characteristics between the primary and secondary coils in both the transmitter and receiver.
3. Impedance transformations, characteristics, and loading within the single-wire transmission medium.
Fig 3.4. Shows the effect of moving the 100W lamp load from the single-wire to the output of the primary circuit of the receiver. The Q of the system remains reduced, and the parallel modes of the receiver coil have been almost completely damped-down (suppressed), so that they merge into the parallel modes of the transmitter, and appearing as only two parallel modes at M1 and M3. With slight transmitter primary capacitor tuning the merged parallel modes of the receiver can be revealed as slight distortions to the peak shapes at M1 and M3. The fundamental series resonant mode at M2 remains constant at 2.20Mc as the wire length in the secondary coils of the TMT system cavity has not changed, but the input resistance has risen significantly to 59.8Ω, as the resistive load of the incandescent lamps is transformed across the TMT system from receiver back to transmitter input. In this case the 59.8Ω input resistance at M2 is closer to the system impedance of 50Ω of the linear amplifier generator.
It should be noted that this represents another way to match the system impedance of the generator to the input of the TMT system, by arranging a suitable resistance load at the output of the receiver. The impedance transformation across the complex transmission line of the TMT apparatus, ensures a good TEM match at the input to the primary. The disadvantage of tuning in this way is that the resistive load reduces the Q of the system, and damps-down the parallel modes of the coils, which ultimately reduces the efficiency of the TMT system for the transference of electric power.
Fig 3.5. Shows the dramatic effect of connecting a 500W incandescent lamp at the output of the receiver, which has significantly unbalanced the TMT cavity, and suppressed the free-resonant characteristics of the receiver, through the low resistance and inductive impedance of the 500W lamp. The large collapse of the receiver characteristics has shifted the transmitter parallel modes M1 and M5 closer together, the lower parallel mode of the receiver at M3 is still present but very small, and the upper parallel mode of the receiver (from the receiver primary coil) is no-longer present. The fundamental series resonant modes are shifted as well, with the transmitter moving down to 2.02Mc, and the receiver moving up to 2.30Mc. The best driving point for the generator is now at M2 at 2.02Mc and with a input resistance of 24.7Ω, which is easily transformed and matched by adjustment of the antenna tuner. M4 the series mode for the receiver could also be used as the driven point, although it is likely that less power will be coupled through the parallel modes at this point and hence into the LMD mode, due to the collapse of these modes from the high loading on the receiver coil.
It should be noted here that despite the imbalance of the impedance characteristics, very high-efficiency power transfer between the generator and the load can still be accomplished through the coupling between TEM and LMD modes in the secondary coils, and through the strong LMD mode maintained in the low impedance cavity of the single-wire transmission medium. In this arrangement with a large, low impedance load at the receiver transference of electric power efficiencies have been measured > 99.9% in hair-line thickness (0.08mm) single-wire cavities.
Figures 4 below show highlights from the video experiment, and also greater clarity on some of the key power measurements taken during the experiment, including high-efficiency power transfer results at > 99%.
Fig. 4.1 High-efficiency transference of electric power in a cylindrical TMT system in the close mid-field region, via a 40AWG 0.08mm single-wire transmission medium, and fully illuminating a 500W incandescent lamp at the receiver output.
Fig. 4.2 The 40AWG 0.08mm single wire transmission medium is 60cm long and is the same thickness as a human hair. The single wire acts as a guide for the LMD mode that is established in the cavity of the TMT system.
Fig. 4.3 The differentiated dielectric and magnetic fields of induction in the LMD mode are guided around the outside of the single wire and span across the cavity between the transmitter and receiver coil. The LMD mode is pumped via coupling between the parallel and series modes of the Tesla coils.
Fig. 4.4 The linear amplifier generator and TMT system were optimally tuned to drive the system stably at 2.08Mc, and the transmitter Bird Thruline power meter reads 520W of power being supplied to the transmitter primary circuit.
Fig. 4.5 The receiver Bird Thruline power meter reads 515W of power being extracted from the receiver primary circuit and fully illuminating the 500W incandescent lamp load.
Fig. 4.6 Here the transmitter and receiver bird meters of the previous two figures have been combined into a single image for clarity. The 520W in the transmitter to 515W in the receiver yields a transfer efficency, via a 40AWG 0.08mm single wire transmission medium, of 99%.
Fig. 4.7 The linear amplifier generator is carefully tuned to the series resonant mode of the TMT system using the antenna tuner. Here the reflected power from the experiment has been reduced to < 1W at over 600W output power, yielding an effective SWR at the power amplifer output of ~ 1.0.
The experiments show the seemingly amazing result of transferring stably 500W of power at very high-efficiency, (peak 800W measured in the experiment, but with lower efficiency), via a single wire 60cm long and 0.08mm thick (40AWG), and comparable to the thickness of a human hair. In a standard electric circuit we would expect to transfer this magnitude of power between the generator and the load using a suitably rated twin-wire arrangement. In the TEM mode the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction establish an alternating potential across the load and an alternating current flowing through the load. As the impedance of the incandescent load is dominated by the resistive part, almost all of the power is dissipated in the lamp element as heat and light, and with resistive and inductive losses in the circuit cabling and connections.
This is in fact what occurs in the receiver primary circuit which is a conventional twin-wire circuit. The receiver Tesla coil acts a step-down transformer and energy is coupled from the secondary coil resonant modes, (both series and parallel), to the primary coil. The dielectric and magnetic fields of induction coupled through to the primary establish in a TEM mode and hence setup alternating potential across the load and an alternating current flowing through the load. The power in the primary receiver circuit can be measured accurately using a standard RF power meter, (such as the Bird 4410A used here), in a standard twin-wire circuit.
There is an equivalent and reciprocal process in the generator primary circuit. The linear amplifier supplies RF power through a standard power meter into the twin-wire primary circuit at the transmitter. The dielectric and magnetic fields of induction established by the generator in the TEM mode, setup an alternating potential across the primary coil and an alternating current flowing through the primary coil. Power is coupled to the secondary coil through the series and parallel resonant modes of the transmitter Tesla coil. Power efficiency can be measured accurately in this system because the transmitter and receiver power measurements both take place in standard twin-wire circuits that are equivalent in impedance using standard twin-wire RF power meters. The primary circuits of both the transmitter and receiver are suitably arranged to minimise resistive and parasitic inductive losses, using good RF connections and cables.
In the cavity established between the transmitter and receiver secondary coils and through the single-wire transmission medium it is conjectured that very high-efficiency transference of electric power through a 60cm 40AWG 0.08mm single wire is possible due to the LMD mode being established across the cavity, where the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction form a longitudinal wavefront that traverses the cavity establishing a standing wave with central null point, and a varying (travelling) voltage and current phase relationship along the cavity. This varying voltage and current relationship in the single-wire cavity can be visualised using the ultraviolet lamp used in the experiment where a travelling interference pattern is setup in the lamp. This interference pattern results from the longitudinal wavefront traversing backwards and forwards between the two secondary top-loads guided by the single wire in-between. In this way the longitudinal cavity extends from the top-load of the transmitter secondary through to the base, into the single-wire, and into the base of the receiver secondary up to the top-load.
When the tuning of the cavity is adjusted through the parallel modes the interference pattern can be made stationary as demonstrated in the video, and represents the optimal tuning position for the LMD mode in the cavity, it is also the point where power transfer efficiency is highest, and most power can be transferred through the cavity between the transmitter and receiver. This is also the point where a diffuse fluorescent lamp will show a null point in the electrical centre point of the cavity. Either side of this tuning the interference pattern will be seen to move towards the receiver and transmitter eventually starting to collapse towards either end of the single wire medium as the LMD mode collapses in the cavity. Coupling to the LMD mode in the secondary coil is dependent on the parallel modes in the coil and these can be adjusted very accurately using the primary tuning capacitors in the transmitter and receiver primary circuits. The LMD mode appears optimised and maximum when the primary and secondary parallel modes are balanced using the primary tuning capacitors, as shown in figures 3.
In summary, it is conjectured here that very high-efficiency transference of electric power is directly possible because of the LMD mode established in a single wire cavity, where the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction are guided around the low impedance single-wire conductor. The single-wire acts in this case like it were a monopole waveguide which would only be possible where the LM and LD modes are spatially in phase, but temporally out of phase, the condition that I conjecture is necessary for the LMD mode to form in the cavity. Real power can be transferred and dissipated at the receiver load via the single-wire transmission medium, because both the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction are guided across the cavity, and where both of these induction fields are necessary to transfer power over the cavity distance. It does not appear possible that transference of electric power can occur here through dielectric field induction alone between the transmitter and receiver coil, but rather that both the magnetic and dielectric induction fields extend across the system by virtue of LMD wavefront in the cavity, and indeed if the single-wire is disconnected from either end (guiding cavity terminated), then no power can be transferred from source to load.
All this said, it now makes sense and can be understood how 500W of power can be transferred from source to load in a TMT system where part of the cavity is a single-wire conductor the thickness of a human air. This ultra-thin section is still only a part of the guiding conductor in the cavity, and appears as yet an even more effective guide to the dielectric and magnetic fields of induction in the configuration of the LMD mode. It is conjectured here from the experiments and measurements so far, that the efficiency of transference of electric power in an LMD transmission system appears to increase as the single-wire transmission medium is reduced in conductor volume per unit length, to the boundary condition limit of the skin depth for the material, in this case ~ 0.046mm (46µm) in copper at 2Mc, where the efficiency would reach a maximum before falling-off again.
Fig. 4.6. shows the comparison of the transmitter and receiver power measured during sustained transference of 500W of power between the source and load, where the wattmeter gauges have been combined from Figs. 4.4 and 4.5 into a single image. The transmitter meter on the left shows 520W of power, and the receiver on the right 515W of power. The calculated transference of electric power efficiency in this case is 99% ±1%, and could be measured consistently during the period of operation. Other measurements of power transfer efficiency were taken at various positions and states of tune in the video experiment and consistently in the range 95% – 100%. 100% power efficiency was measured initially when using the 0.08mm single-wire conductor but dropped to a constant 99% after further tuning adjustments.
Summary of the results and conclusions so far
In this post we have experimentally observed high-efficiency transference of electric power sustained at 99%, and maximum 100%, with a estimated error of ±1%. The experiments were conducted in the close mid-field region in a TMT system driven with a linear amplifier generator, and using high power incandescent lamp loads in the receiver primary circuit. From the experimental results and measurements presented the following observations, considerations and conjectures are made:
1. The high-efficiency transference of electric power across a 0.08mm single-wire transmission medium is possible because of the Longitudinal magneto-dielectric (LMD) mode established in the cavity between the transmitter and receiver secondary coils.
2. The transfer of power in the LMD mode across the cavity results in the dielectric and magnetic induction fields being guided around the single-wire like a monopole waveguide. Power does not appear to be coupled from transmitter to receiver by dielectric induction alone.
3. The LM and LD modes are spatially coherent (in-phase) and temporally out-of-phase, combining to form the LMD mode that belongs to longitudinal transference phenomena.
5. The LMD mode forms as a standing wave in the cavity with a null point at the centre of the reciprocal cavity which can be observed using a fluorescent lamp.
6. The LMD mode can be observed through the interference pattern generated in a ultraviolet lamp placed close to the single wire cavity, from the longitudinal wavefront traversing backward and forward across the cavity. Tuning of the cavity using the parallel resonant modes in the transmitter and receiver varies the direction of interference, and is stationary at the optimum point.
7. The efficiency of transference of electric power in an LMD transmission system appears to increase as the single-wire transmission medium is reduced in conductor volume per unit length, to the boundary condition limit of the skin depth for the material.
8. The optimal efficiency transference of electric power requires optimal matching of the generator to the transmitter coil at the fundamental series resonant mode in order to transfer as much power as possible into the secondary cavity, correct tuning of the LMD mode through coil geometry and parallel mode tuning, and optimal matching between the receiver coil and the load to extract the maximum power.
This post has explored aspects of the TEM and LMD modes in the high-efficiency transference of electric power, including generator matching, tuning, and observation and measurement of various phenomena associated with TMT operation using a linear amplifier generator. The experiments conducted here are in the close mid-field region and form an encouraging starting point to extend the distance between the transmitter and receiver. Further work in progress, and to be subsequently reported, includes transference of electric power using longer single-wires where the transmitter and receiver are placed in different rooms, and buildings, and comparison over the same distance with ground connected transmission, and full Telluric transmission for far-field experiments.
Click here to continue to the next part, looking at High-Efficiency Transference of Electric Power – 11m Single Wire.
1. A & P Electronic Media, AMInnovations by Adrian Marsh, 2019, EMediaPress